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19th century



How is an idea born? For you, what is inspiration?

Typically, when it comes to reading an artist’s statement or a curator’s remarks on an artist which is related to an exhibition in a gallery setting, the general public sometimes discovers that the accompanying statement is filled with artspeak, an obscure language that confounds people more than it clarifies how to understand the work behind the artist’s intentions.

Such statements are often laden with historically antecedent references, obscure and foreign philosophical posturing (preferably 19th century French or German), fuliginous wording, and tenebrous and obfuscating expression (the terms Zeitgeist, transcendent, and dialogic are used a lot) and loaded with excessively verbose ideas in order to sound cerebrally profound. (This last sentence is a perfect example of “artspeak”). In truth, it’s all just convoluted fluff!

I prefer to keep it much simpler.

My mixed media drawings and paintings result from interpreting randomly selected pieces of text torn from old, discarded books.

Many years ago I acquired a large number of used, hard-covered books for a special art project. Afterwards, I began using these books and their words as a source of inspiration for my drawings and paintings. I still do. The following is an explanation of my working methods.

I begin by taking any book from my collection, opening it, pointing to a page by chance, and then scanning that page for a set of words that says something to me. It could be a series of descriptive adjectives, a partial statement, a single phrase, or a complete sentence. Whatever it is, I respond to the meaning of those words in some way.

Next, I sit and ponder for a while as to why those particular words spoke to me and I allow intuition, spontaneity and my subconscious to guide my thoughts. It is in this state of contemplation that my ideas begin to form. As is the case with all of my mixed media drawings and paintings, this small piece of torn text gets adhered to the surface of the work and becomes the title of each new piece.

This working method is a highly personal enterprise often fraught with uncertainty and doubt, simply because I am never quite sure how others will relate to my intentions and what the work has to offer them personally when they have had contact with it. Once I have unpacked the symbology of the words, I seek out imagery that best describes that context. Usually, I start with an overall concept-image. It can be one image or an array of images. Whatever image or images dominate, this central focus pushes the direction in which all of the other components of the composition will follow. More often than not, my ideas and images are in a constant state of chaotic reassembly. Hence, my work tends to evolve as I create it. I do not do many preliminary drawings or plans for my large scale works because my approach to designing the composition of each new piece is essentially intuitive. When I do prepare plans or make notes, they simply serve as guideposts for ordering and measuring the scale of imagery that I use.

To date, I have been working with a host of signs, symbols and silhouette images that are ambiguous in their visual meaning. This makes each work into a puzzle to be deciphered or solved. At the same time, I will sometimes employ imagery whose direct and literal meaning is so obvious that it cannot be ignored or found confusing.

Accompanying the dominant imagery is a visual parade of simple formal elements: geometric shapes, regular and irregular grids, gestured and scribbled marks, cursively written messages, enumerated line segments, measurements, linear polyhedrons, erasures, repainted or over-painted areas, smudges, and circled and x notations in space – all of which have some meaning but sometimes nothing more profound other than to appear to have significant meaning or substance. They are part of an invented language that I have developed over time. All of this information adds to the visual puzzle that I am presenting to the viewer. If the viewer is inclined, I leave tracks to be followed as traces of my creative thought processes to be discovered and unpacked all the way. This entire build-up of residue is allowed to linger on the surface in relation to the dominant imagery to provide spatial tension, balance, or some other sense of orderly compositional arrangement; because after all, I am still trying to create art that is pleasing to the eye and aesthetically engaging.

Along with these features, most of my mixed media pieces also include a small collaged segment or portion of picture taken from an art history textbook that references the work of another artist. Often I will incorporate some of the color scheme from that segment into my work as a gesture of acknowledgement to those that have preceded me and contributed to the historical continuum of art.

If there is a simple way of describing my overall work in a single, general expression of appearance, I would hope that each work looks as if it came into being through some form of mental plan and enlightenment but compounded by additional and fascinatingly strange imagery that just doesn’t seem to make sense at first glance. Consequently, they should all describe themselves as a melding of conscious action with foolish play, careful design intertwined with chaos and chance, or serendipity blended into well reasoned order.

All of my work is essentially a continuous exercise in self-portraiture since all of my imagery emanates from my biography and life experiences. Even if you fail to discern my personal and direct intentions or message, I hope that you are sufficiently intrigued with my work to look long enough to be somewhat engaged. In other words, I want you to enjoy what you are seeing and I want you to be visually engrossed to the point of appreciating the imagery if only for the fact that your vision has been challenged and your mind has been stimulated.

People who own one or more of my drawings or paintings have told me afterwards that they continue to discover new ways of responding and reacting to my work every time they look at it. They say that they still find it visually intriguing and strangely beautiful and puzzling with each new encounter.

It’s not because the art has changed, I tell them; it‘s because they have.




What made you interested in design?

growing up in 1970s NYC presented many opportunities to see how design and planning affects the human condition in both positive and negative ways. learning about 19th and 20th century urbanism plus an obsession with space travel were the initial sparks of inspiration for me.



Do you believe the newer generations are better at designing?

No, because even when they had few resources and innovations, such as not offending so many machines would do it for them, so stejnak managed very well, remember the example of Mr. John Deere, it was Mr. who started a complete nothing, now you can see where got up, and the company is doing very well in the world, and that many in the U.S. in the early 19th century was much in the manufacture of agricultural machinery, many of them disappeared after 1950.



List some things you dislike seeing in design.

-when a designer designs new, beautiful, but not user-friendly thing
-when somebody made up a glorious nonsense, which is not needed for usual kind of a human
-when there is a huge mixture of colours or styles that e. g. an armchair looks like a parrot with modern sneakers and a hat from 19th century




What well known writers do you admire most?

I have a slew of favorite authors, all for different reasons. I like Anne Rice for her prosaic style; I enjoy James Purdy for his sense of the mundane. My favorite authors in general tend to come from the 19th century. American and Russian writers from that period have always captured my imagination. When I was 14 I read "Crime and Punishment" by Fyoder Dostoevsky. At that age, I was obsessed with horror novels and films. Dostoevsky's magnum opus was like watching a slasher film. I loved it.



What era of architecture most fascinates you?

19th Century



What movies or television shows inspired you to work in this field?

Ken Burn's "Jazz" documentary for PBS was the original inspiration (specifically, the first episode which talks about late-19th and early-20th century New Orleans).

As we have kept working, HBO's "Treme" and several music documentaries (like "No Direction Home", "The Last Waltz" and 1973's "Jimi Hendrix") have all been major influences.




Should there be more public financing for scientific investigation?

Absolutely, and there are many reasons. We are on the way to become a globalized society that is almost entirely dominated by technology related problems and solutions. We already have the situation that much of our contamporary technology is controlled by corporations - genetic engineering is an example. As a result there is little - or no - democratic control over these technologies and their application, which strikes me as dubious. Another aspect is that privately funded research usually is profit oriented and thus moves wherever the money is. Problems that are unlikely to be profitable if solves are unlikely to be addressed, and existing technologies often block the passage towards new ways of thinking. Peak oil and nuclear energy are examples: as energy prices soar, the old technologies become ever more profitable before they finally collapse, so there is little incentive for corporations for early investment in new technologies. On the contrary.

A third topic is the relationship between fundamental research and innovation. Even as we speak, here in the year 2011, much of our contemporary technology is rooted in the fundamental research of the 19th and early 20th century. Especially Europe has to bank (and bet) on its intellectual achievements - there simply is nothing else. And the invisible hand of the allegedly free market cannot even bail out itself - so I wouldn't trust that one.




What is your favorite genre? Can you provide a link to a site where we can read some of your work or learn something about it?

My favorite genre to read is 19th century British classics. But I am a playwright. Usually I write funny plays. Here is a link to my play, "Radio Star". http://www.originalworksonline.com/radiostar.htm



Who have been the most influential people in your career?

Hmm... here comes the essay. When I was in my mid to late teens I was fascinated by catwalk fashion, I wanted so much to be a designer. I used to draw designs constantly, dresses, suits, shoes, you name it. I even wrote to Jean Paul Gaultier when I was 17 for advice on breaking into the field and he wrote back to me a lovely handwritten letter with photo.

I drew outfits since I was a much younger child, forever drawing pictures of people in all sorts of unusual "get ups". But sewing has NEVER been my strong point and so I realized I was more artistic than technical.

I am also obsessed with 18th and 19th century fashion, I loved a lot of John Galliano's designs also.

My children are also a strong influence because it is their future that I want to concentrate on, I want to give them the best of everything and teach them (as they grow older) to love themselves for who they are and to express themselves however they wish and to follow their dreams. I want to set that example by following mine and being a success at it.




Are we witnessing the end of the American empire?

America has never had an empire like France and Britain and all those 18th and 19th century empires. America seems to have gotten really fat and lazy. Our President says its "impossible" to protect our borders. This would be a surprise to someone like President Kennedy who got us to the moon based on just our will.



Who have your teachers been?

I've had two inspiring teachers. One in High School and one at University. My High School teacher taught sociology. She used a variety of non-traditional teaching methods - she was a true lateral thinker. And she was kind. Kindness is so important. And my Uni professor taught 19th century European History by weaving history with the architecture, music, art, popular culture, politics, and science of the period demonstrating the uselessness of rigid categories.

Referring back to question one - I'm creative because I was encouraged to be creative by my family. My parents taught me how to make things, how to be independent and to value exploration. And my Aunt Helen. What an amazing woman. She lives a creative life and she has always inspired me.




Does photography have the recognition that it should have in contemporary art museums?

No. I'm not sure people have been groomed to see photography as an art form. It was very controversial in the beginning (19th century/early 20th) whether photography was art or purely scientific. There was quite a fight over it.

Now, with mass media and the inundation of images we face daily. A brain has to sort out so much visual information that an artistic photograph just becomes another thing to be sorted. It's unfortunate, but true.

It's why I began taking blurry/bokeh photographs on purpose. I was tired of sharp images that I could easily dismiss. I wanted to see beyond what was obvious. To me they are meaningful, but I'm sure some people just think they are junk.

Photography is an incredibly valuable art form.




What type of reading inspires you to write?

True crime genre because nearly all is not written by historians who have researched the archives, but by journalists who rely on interviews and gossip, so most is not good.

Good history, written by historians such as David Starkie, Simon Schama, and most particularly the historians of the French Annales School, one of the most notable being Alain Corbin. They re-create these time capsules of micro-history, including the sounds you would hear the the odours of the times.

I read many 19th Century novels and some 20th Century. Balzac re-created in his 'Comedie Humaine' a faithful history of his times. I read many Russian novels: so beautiful and lyrical. If you want to understand the banking crisis of last year, then read Gogol's 'Dead Souls'!




What research do you do for your illustrations?

It matters what I am illustrating. Many of my illustrations are of characters from the 18th-19th century, so I do a lot of research on outfits, and traditions of that time.
If I am drawing a person, or a character, I also gather pictures of those people so I can draw them accurately.




Besides more financial resources, what do today's schools lack?

Today’s universities are stuck in 19th Century methods of teaching while we are living in the 21st Century. A lot of professors are still talking heads and lecture, talking at the students using chalk and a blackboard (which was invented in 1863). Higher education needs to catch up technology and expectations of today’s students. We need to challenge traditional notions of teaching and use a variety of technologies and teaching strategies that will challenge students. One of my colleagues was alarmed that more students on campus are taking online classes rather than sit in his classroom. While some are doing it due to scheduling issues, many are doing it as they are bored listening to traditional lectures and talking heads. All types of teaching needs to constantly be assessed and brought into the 21st Century.



What did you first read? How did you begin to write? Who were the first to read what you wrote?

It may be insightful that the first thing I remember reading was a collection of stories by the legendary Southern Uncle Rhemus character. It was after seeing the final Disney release of Song of the South in 1986 or so, at age 5. My parents looked at the book, written in 19th century southern folk-speak that I'd never been exposed to before, shook their heads and said, "how the hell can you understand what this is even saying?"
I wrote in school. I loved essay questions. My father had a lively imagination, and often extemporaneously composed folk tales about the teenage sister I never had named "Ruthie". I elaborated on these tales and developed my own in English classes and history classes. I suppose that makes my teachers the first to enjoy my writing, if they actually read it - it was American public education.




What did you first read? How did you begin to write? Who were the first to read what you wrote?

I first read adult novels when I was about 13 but there are so many I cannot remember them, they were varied and mostly romantic. I read and studied for my L.A.M.D.A degree when I was in my mid-twenties and read Shakespeare and Dickens and other 19th century classics from European writers.

I began to write fiction when I was in my early twenties, and had many rejections from publishers. But I also wrote plays with a colleague for rep theatre.

I then began studying metaphysics/astrology in my late twenties and wrote reports astrologically for people who commissioned work from me. But I also wrote related material and articles for popular distribution in conventional and unconventional ways.

I now write for our own websites www.perceptivity.co.uk and www.tarot-online.net.




What well known writers do you admire most?

Without a doubt, Leonard Cohen. I am also a fan of the 19th century romantics, and have a soft spot for Lord Byron.
Gerard Manley Hopkins has also become a firm favorite of mine since performing an interpretation of The Laden Echo and the Golden Echo with the talented Carla Martin Wood.
http://www.thewellreadhead.com/SmokyJoesCafe.html




What role does technology play in your creative process?

85% of my art is created within a virtual landscape, without computers, the bulk of my creative visual art would never happen. 15% of my artwork is done by hand, on a different medium that is 100% non-technological but more of a throwback to the 19th century if not before.



Who is your favourite artist?

Query, Book Proposal& MS of “Legend” By Christina and Barie Fez-Barringten

Query, Book Proposal & Manuscript’s text only (37 pages)
“Legend”
©2006 Christina &Barie Fez-Barringten
(Under title 17 of U.S. code by section 106; 1976 copyright act)

By Christina and Barie Fez-Barringten

This is a picture book of 21 surreal psychic automatism collages made during the late sixties and is the only collection of its kind. They are a “roman” of mythology, which she calls Romantic Mythology.
For the first time they are scheduled to exhibit in fine art galleries and wish a book to be available for the general public, collectors and connoisseurs.
They currently appear on their website: www.bariefez-barringten.com
The website is not commercial and seen by very few.

Memberships
Alliance for the arts
Gulf Coast Writers Association
American Institute of Architects
American Society of Interior Designers
International Interiors Designers Association
Pratt and Yale University Alumni associations
Please see their website for complete background.



Query Letter
Greetings!
These 21 art works have attracted connoisseurs, collectors, as well as artist’s agents, exhibitors and galleries. The works of art are a one-of-kind unique collection of collages which have become an artifact of the sixty’s, surreal psychic automatism, pop art and sixty’s nostalgia. The collages were made from collections of high fashion magazines (Vintage Fashion) acquired by Christina in the sixties while Barie was a student at Yale and his cousin Louis Abolofia and the "love generation" were spawning happenings, fashion and music. The art captures the popular look and excitement of the period without being psychedelic, but is a kind of expression of the times. They were created in Puerto Rico just before they returned to New York City in 1969 where Barie taught at Pratt and was the co-founder of international Earth Day in 1970.
The art work is briefly annotated with a narrative about the period, art movements of the time and highlights of their life.

Christina's Romantic Mythology is derived from the German language where "roman" means “story” , taking artistic license to develop metaphor and reasonable contexts, events and representations based on what ever is known about something; in this case legendary mythological characters. Christina has done with each legend what story tellers and movie makers have done for ages with all mythology; to create a portrait of the mythological characters in the jargon of her own imagination; in this case the vintage fashion world of the vintage and very precious 1966,1967 and 1968 Harpers, Vogue and Mademoiselle magazines. In this sense, her work shows the superior reality of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought.
It tends to ruin once and for all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life. She made these collages in 1968 at the very time of their release with the vision she had of them and their mythological antecedents.

Christina and Barie are both members of Gulf Coast Writers Association and the Naples Press Club attending various writers’ conferences where they plan to offer this proposed book. They are also members of various art, design and professional organizations where they will also offer this book for sale. The original art works themselves are currently not for sale and only being offered to purchase as an entire collection while individual giclees may be purchased for individual personal collections. The book will be a popular way to get the works into the hands of many who would otherwise not have access to the whole collection nor individual pieces.
Christian and Barie have all the originals as well as jpg files and for nine they already have TIF and PDF files for your use. They need only make 12 more TIF or PDF for your use. The images shown are JPG files. Legend is to be printed in color with full-page picture of artwork on the left and on the facing page the description; left sheet picture and right sheet description so that the reader may see the full-page color picture while reading the description at the same place. This is a time when the editions of these fashion magazines are greatly valued and collected in their original form; they are themselves vintage collector’s items.

The book will make an excellent gift and a definite addition to a connoisseur’s collection.
As a trustee of the South West Florida Yale Alumni Association, Barie will also offer the book to its members and their families. They will also be able to offer the book when they speaking at various professional and social groups.

While browsing through Barnes and Noble Christina and Barie noticed that there were other art books being offered for sale by such publishers as Rizzoli, Abrams, Clarkson Potter, Tashen, Cedco, Harper Collins, Lococo fine art; Art Fund; Chronicle Book; Distributed Art Publishers Inc.; Empire, Balcony Press; ARS Libri; and Oak and Knoll, to name a few.
Their books had few words and beautifully printed fine art.
“Legend” should be one of these beautiful books.


Please let us know if you wish a copy of the MS in with the 21 images in PDF or JPEG format which can be send it as an attachment.
However, you can view the collages by clicking on “Christina’s Artwork” on www.bariefez-barringten.com

However, the Book Proposal and text of the MS follows below.


Book Proposal (2,643 words) 7 pages

“Legend”
by Christina and Barie Fez-Barringten
©2006 Christina &Barie Fez-Barringten
(Under title 17 of U.S. code by section 106; 1976 copyright act)

1. The Content (What the book is about)

The problem and the book as the solution

Unique selling proposition
AWR is art within reach for the person who cannot afford to spend $500 for a giclee or $5000 for an original but can spend under $50 for the entire collection of 21 fine art collages. In any case, even if the buyer could buy one he can then have all the rest.
Today, there are other such “within reach” markets for furniture, jewelry and fashion making culture, high styling and great art available for everyone. At the beginning of 2008, Christina’s entire collection will be exhibited in one of the nations largest such furniture chains called Design Within Reach. (DWR).

What’s so important and special about this book?
The book is important because it documents a period, kind of art and a unique person in the world of art. Why should a publisher want to publish it? (Aren’t there enough books out there already without adding another to the pile?) There are few affordable books of fine art and none of this period.
Who’s the core audience for the book, and why will they care about it? People who are just beginning to buy furniture, decorate there homes and begin collecting fine art and cultural metaphors will greatly appreciate this book. Especially those with a love of fashion, myths and legends. Already there is a tremendous market for vintage Vogue, Harpers, Mademoiselle, etc.

Premise:
Today, the popularity of myths, legends and fashion is overwhelming as society seeks heroes, a promising future and solutions to the challenges of our world. While the ugly, dissonant and disgusting have a market the beautiful, harmonious and opulent have even a greater market.
While TV, fashion magazines, comic books, internet, blogs, tunes, etc satisfy some of the markets needs art galleries are filled with fantasy and futuristic works of art. What can be better than to have a whole collection of a single vision of fantasy icons, legends and myths icons, which combine both fashion and myth? Not a replacement for the bible or many other sources of great heroes and fictional deities, Legend presents the look of the legends and links them to our own metaphors.
Manuscript
MS Status: The art work is 100% complete and the narrative is 90 %complete awaiting the input of editors and publishers possible emphasis, direction and redirection
Special Features: The special feature of this book is that it combines full color artwork with metaphorical narrative.
Anticipated Length: The book of 21 fine art images with a one page narrative for each will be proceeded by an eight page introduction and preface for a total of about 50 pages.
Anticipated completion: The manuscript is already complete in its draft form and the authors are ready to work with the publisher’s staff to complete any final editions in a matter of days.

2. The Market (Who will buy the book)

Demographic description:
The predominant segment of human population broken down by age or sex or income etc especially with regard to density and capacity for expansion or decline will be predominantly college, newly weds and baby boomers relocating and reestablishing homesteads. Many of their parents and friends will buy these books to give as gifts, wedding, birthday, home warming and shower presents.
Psychographic description is a graphic representation or chart of the personality traits of an individual or group: The psychographic of the buyers will be happy, positive and optimistic shoppers seeking high end icons, metaphors and symbols of their taste. They will be discriminating and selective buyers.
Affinity group is a natural attraction, liking, or feeling of kinship will be interior designers, academic college students, administrators, professors, schoolteachers, researchers, historians, architects, fashion designers, art collectors, connoisseurs, travelers, airlines, and retired professionals.
Competition: This book will compete with other beautiful fine art books of contemporary fine art now stocked in book stores such as Barnes and Noble and available on line by thousands of internet art and art book sales sites.

Promotion:
Christina’s artwork has a built-in audience on our webpage, galleries and participation with buyers and specifiers. Because we are both active members of interior design, architectural, art, writers and university alumni associations we will be able to bring this book to the attention of many including members of the media. In addition, we are both retired and have the ability to participate in book fairs, conferences and direct and indirect marketing venues.
Book stores now carry a goodly number of art picture books selling as gifts to art collectors and connoisseurs. We are actively marketing our art in galleries and our book about our twenty years in Saudi Arabia. We believe that the confluence of our different projects and involvements will greatly benefit the interest and sale of many of these books.

3. The Author (Why Christina and Barie are the best possible authors for this book)

Previous writing: Barie has had a contract to publish by John Wiley and sons, written and published about fifteen monographs in learned and peer reviewed journals in Turkey, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, England, Finland and the United States of America. He has also written many corporate reports and manuals for the Gulf Oil Corporation and Arabian American Oil Company.


Current writing on other projects such as:


1 Saudi Arabian Mission Report: contains news paper collage clippings from the English language Saudi Arabian newspapers prior to 9/11 from 1993 to 1999.

2. Holy Spirit in Saudi Arabia about our twenty years in Saudi Arabia

3. Bronx Stardust about the first 21 years of my life growing up in New York City

4. Autobiographical Memoirs including my views on urbanity, metaphors, cities, family, relationships, schools, etc.

5. Little Fishermen is an illustrated Christian Children's book

6. Look of the End Times is a fine art pen and ink scripturally narrated book.

7. Anagrams (word grams) is a book of illustrated DaDa drawings and poems

8. European Pen and Ink drawings is a book of drawings made in 72 European cities in 1963

9. Sheba-Land is a pen and ink sketch book with brief narrations consisting of surreal fantasy drawings

10. Acrylics in Saudi Arabia made for a one lady exhibit in 1986

11. Architecture, the Making of Metaphors is a compendium of formerly published and unpublished monographs

Personal marketing
Place books and brochures:
• Gift shops
• Decorator and Design offices and shops
• Furniture and decorator shops and show rooms
• High Fashion shops
• Art galleries, which show my art
• Book Fairs
• Writers Clubs
• Book signings
• Fashion shows
• Writer’s fairs and conventions
• Lectures on making collages at art schools, schools, and libraries


Why are we the best persons to write this book?

Christina Fez-Barringten is a Pop Art artist and a writer. Her collages, acrylic paintings, and Plexiglas sculptures were part of the exciting visual arts movement that emerged in the mid 1950's in Britain and in the late 1950's in the United States. Pop-Art was one of the major art movements of the 20th century. It was characterized by “mass-cultural” themes and techniques drawn from popular materials and media such as plastics, magazine advertising, TV, pop-music, space-time relativity, and comic books. While Pop Art, like Pop Music, aimed to employ images of popular culture in art and emphasized the everyday elements of any given culture, Christina's work challenged the depressing “elitist” culture of the 1950's with her passion for harmony, grace and balance. She believed that all of these elements could work together. Furthermore, she believed that the “deconstructivism” of DaDa and Surrealism art of the time could be made popular by mixing them with the jargon of the world of fashion and cosmopolitan urbanism that the new generations understood. Christina's work might be called Existentialism today. This brave young woman turned her beliefs into reality. She broke Plexiglas into fragments and reassembled them into vibrant, colorful sculptures. Christina ripped apart fashion magazines of the early 1960's and gently placed them into compositions of personality, boldness, love, deep thought, and excitement.

Shortly before moving to New Haven to begin his studies, Barie was introduced to Christina. Christina lived at the International House, a home for graduate students on Riverside Drive. She studied fine arts at Columbia University Howard Cook, then, the president of the International House, graciously arranged for Christina to have a large art studio in the same building, where she could work and develop her new kind of sculptures.
Her medium was Plexiglas, which had never been used in fine art sculptures.
David Rockefeller commissioned her work to be exhibited at the Chase Manhattan bank. Other exhibitions followed. The Frank Lawrence Gallery at East 57 Street and Park Ave. Showed and represented her abstract sculptures; which, thanks to her medium, and , her artistry, are not like conventional sculptures where volume is inserted into space which surrounds them. Rather, they have become part of space as air, color and light play through it.

Background:
Christina was born in Leipzig, Germany. 1956 she came to New York to study philosophy. But when she discovered the powerful and inspiring movement of modern art in New York City, and, learned to know Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Lichtenstein, and, others. She decided to use her artistic talent and, changed her goals to study fine art at both the Art Students League and School of Visual Arts.

Shortly before she intended to return to Germany, Christina was introduced to Paul Lefson by Max Waldman, a theatrical photographer (Well known for his book "Waldman on Theater", and his photos in Life Magazine). Paul and Christina got married in 1958 and lived on East 31 Street in Manhattan. Sadly, Paul Lefson died accidentally while on business in Chicago early in 1963.

To overcome the devastating loss, Christina turned to her art more than ever. She now studied sculpture at Columbia University under Professor Peter Augustini. In that period, Christina learned to know Barie Fez-Barringten.

Barie and Christina married in 1966 in New Haven, while Barie studied at Yale University, under Paul Rudolf, Charles Moore, Vincent Scully and others. 1967 Barie originated the theory of” Architecture the Making of Metaphors". At that time, Barie conducted a lecture series at Yale University with Robert Venturi, John Cage, Paul Weiss, Christopher Tunnard, and others. This event is partially published in "Main Currents of Modern Thought".

After the completion of Barie's studies in February of 1968, the couple moved for a short while, (To escape the cold of winter.) to Puerto Rico. Barie was appointment junior partner of Schimmelpfennig, Ruiz and Gonzales and designed buildings for Ron Rico and El Mundo.

In Puerto Rico Christina developed a series of original and exciting collages. She was inspired by the most elaborate, rich and opulent editions of the 1960's - Harper's Bazaar and Vogue Magazines.
These collages are excellent posters and are now shown for the first time on the internet.

Back in New York, in order for Barie, now, a licensed architect to do his work, and Christina to have space for her sculptures, the couple moved in to a large loft on East 68 Street. Barie taught architecture at Pratt Institute. And, when Barie accepted the challenge of Mayor Lindsey to bring the first ""Earth Day" to New York City, he encouraged his students to build the stage for that event. Paul Newman and people from Sesame Street, Ally McGraw and others furnished the educational entertainment. The following year, John Mc Connell enlisted Barie's assistance to stage his version the Earth Day in Central Park and to get the General Secretary of the United Nations, U Thant, to proclaim Earth Day as an international holiday (March 21).

In addition, Barie founded a New York not-for-profit corporation: "Laboratories for Metaphoric Environments" with one of its goals to provide under privileged children a glimpse of the creative excitement of the building industry from cabinet work, to carpentry and design. There in order to illustrate his teaching he produced a series of words-drawings now in the hands of several collectors.

In 1973, Barie accepted the challenge to develop two vacation resorts in Tennessee, Sugar Tree and English Mountain. And, in addition, he designed homes for a development in Belmopan, Belize, British Honduras.

Also, Barie the artist developed a series of brilliantly envisioned drawings of futuristic metaphors, which he exhibited in conjunction with Christina's Plexiglas sculpture, at the Jonathan Gallery in Jackson, and in Memphis, Tennessee.

Later, he was recruited by the "Gulf Oil Real Estate Development Company" to be its lead project manager for a new computer building and other new structures in Texas. Because of that, the couple had moved to Houston. Also, Barie always interested to inspire young people in his profession, taught part-time at the University of Houston; and, later, fulltime, as associate professor at college station's Texas A&M University. Professor Fez-Barringten student's benefited by his friendship with the astronaut Joe Allen. Together they looked way into the future and designed space stations furniture and other imagined designed necessities.

By 1981, the Fez-Barringten's moved from Texas to Saudi Arabia where Barie trained Saudi Arabian students to work in architecture department of The Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO).

After moving to Riyadh, Barie got busy and designed 21 new towns for the people of Saudi Arabia. He also designed sport stadiums, office buildings and other building types.

In Riyadh Christina developed, out of necessity a new style of pattern-like paintings. For in this Muslim country objects can not be portrayed through art. 1986, Christina gave a major exhibition of her acrylic paintings sponsored by the American Ambassador in Saudi Arabia. In addition, she taught and was the judge of important art events, especially during the five years when Barie was Professor of Architecture at King Faisal University, located in Dammam on the Gulf of Arabia. Professor Barie Fez-Barringten's articles of metaphors, written during that time, are published in learned journals in the USA, Middle East and Europe.

Barie Fez- Barringten is an architect, philosopher, writer, artist, project manager and teacher. He is one of the world's foremost advocates of the artistic concept called the “Architecture, the making of Metaphors”. His work has been recognized around the world, particularly in the US and Saudi Arabia. According to Professor Fez-Barringten, there is a 3-way symbiotic relationship that exists between architecture, music and art, and the audience that experiences that art within the controlled space of that environment. Using the concept of the “metaphor”, a synergy that can be easily observed when all
three properly work together.
In 1999 the Fez Barringtens left Saudi Arabia...............

Praises of Author’s Work
Both of us have served for many years in secular public as professor, managers, architects, designers, teachers, and clerical positions as missionaries, pastor, and ministers with a following of constituents, congregations, and students who now have families and run business, mange companies and lead governments and government agencies. Because we both are good speakers and teachers the American Institute of Architects, American society of Interior designers, and Interior Design Society continue to invite them to serve in positions of leadership. Barie was recently appointed a trustee of the Yale club of Southwest Florida and Christina has been invited to show her collages in local fine art and internet galleries.

Competition will come from other contemporary artists and fine art publishers who will print and distribute books to the major book stores but will not be able to reach the major design and academic professional community as an insider.

All the chapters, Annotated Table of Contents and Chapter by chapter synopsis can be found in the pdf file.

Creative Interaction between Author and Editor involves listening, receiving criticism and work to develop and improve the ms. it is hoped that the state of this ms is early enough in its development to be able to be developed with shared artistic enthusiasm and interest.

Christina and Barie will await your kind word.
Sincerely yours
Christina and Barie Fez-Barringten
1011 La Paloma Blvd.
North Fort Myers, Florida 33903
239 543 2736
www.bariefez-barringten.com
christinasfineart@gmail.com

Below please find the text only of the manuscript.
LEGEND”
©2006 Christina &Barie Fez-Barringten
(Under title 17 of U.S. code by section 106; 1976 copyright act)

A graphic tale of the love generation’s hippie’s sixties started at
Haight Ashbury, San Francisco
Book of Christina’s Automatic Surrealist Collages
Made in Puerto Rico in 1968 from fashion magazines she collected in Manhattan and New Haven from 1966

By Christina and Barie Fez-Barringten
Artwork by Christina with Barie’s narrative

TOC
A. Preface
B. Introduction
C. Artist’s background
1.Appetite
2.Taproots
3.Kiss
4.Opulent:
5.Quixote
6.Mystery:
7.Easter

8.Creation
9.Lord’sSupper
10.Maria
11.Maya
12.Xanadu
13.Sun-He
14.CoCo
15.Narcisse
16.Salome
17.Vampira
18.Turandot
19.Mercedes
20.Luna
21.Gemini


Preface: Book is to be printed in color with full-page picture of artwork on the left and on the facing page the description, left sheet picture and right sheet description so that the reader may see the full-page color picture while reading the description at the same place.

Christina’s pop art collages are now available as fine art inkjet giclée printed reproductions as the entire collection of the originals is being kept as part of the artist’s estate. This is being done to preserve their integrity and value of their importance and value. Each of the fine art giclees are individually signed and dated and be part of any connoisseur’s fine art collection. Each is truly one of kind, unique and remarkable achievements. With the advent of digital photography and the slow demise of mechanical lithography, digital inkjet high-end printing is expanding exponentially. Giclée loosely means spraying or squirting in French. Christina’s collage giclees are characteristics of a true digital art print:

While the techniques of collage were first used at the time of the invention of paper in China around 200 BC the use of collage remained very limited until the 10th century in Japan, when calligraphers began to apply glued paper, using texts on surfaces, when writing their poems. Her work cries out for words and music only to be found by the viewer. In the 19th century, collage methods also were used among hobbyists for memorabilia (i.e. applied to photo albums) and books (i.e. Hans Christian Andersen, Carl Spitzweg).In this way Christina’s home is filled family photo collages. It is her natural way to express her ideas and relationships of people, places and events. The term collage derives from the French "colle" meaning, "glue”. This term was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art.

Introduction:

Art of the so-called Love Generation are Impressions of the psychedelic, Mod, and Hip-art of the sixties, Christina’s Psychic Automatism is graphic memoirs made during the sixties. While they seem to be Pop Art, Surreal, Fantasy Metaphors they are really a re-assemblage of deconstructed reality.
Christina’s Giclées Collages combines the beauty and brilliance of this printing technology. While photographic prints are somewhat dull and limited a giclée print let her collages pop with deep blacks, saturation and gradations hard to achieve with other media. Her jet-printed glossy laminate.
“As she broke the Plexiglas into fragments, she too tore the magazine’s pages. As she reassembled the Plexiglas fragments to a form a new reality so she assembled the bits and pieces of magazine sheets to form metaphors of spirit, fashion, urbanism, and a fantasy life and into a visual memoir of the Love Generation”.
The Baby Boomers of today grew up in the midst of the greatest cultural revolution of our time, a revolution, which emerged out the beat generation into the hippie’s creativity in San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury and England’s Soho. It was the beginning of the culture of youth where being over thirty was ancient.
Christina created this collection of collages in 1968 regurgitating pent up sights, sounds, feelings, and impressions of her three creative days between Yale’s school of architecture and Manhattan’s “art scene”. She did this in Puerto Rico while TV programs like:” Laugh In” and the first run of Star Trek was airing in the states. At Yale, they gave a lecture series published as “Architecture the Making of Metaphors” encouraged by dean Charles Moore with John Cage, Paul Weiss, Robert Venturi and others. At the time Timothy Leary was advocating the wonders of LSD while the young were tripping out on Broadway and loving at Woodstock. Society listened to acid rock and painted psychedelic illustrations and paintings. They listened while crowds proclaimed against the Vietnam war to “Make Love and Not War” while the musical Hair reaped in millions at the box office. The streets of New Haven were charged with “blacks” rioting against the “establishment”. Christina dressed in the her own designed and high fashion minis and soaked in the psychedelic sounds of the Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin, Bee Gees, Beatles and other like the Mamas and the Papas. All the while she collected the many magazines she would later use in her collages. She and her husband made graffiti and gorilla art on buildings, malls and with posters in their apartment and the buildings in Puerto Rico..
Christina’s Pop Art collages are a part of visual artistic movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain. It paralleled in the late 1950s in the United States. The early 50s was the time when Christina had to flee from east to west Germany, leaving her home city of Leipzig, a city once known for its commerce, music and literature. Christina was born educated in Leipzig and its surrounding area. It was the home of Gutenberg, Luther, Bach, Mendelssohn, Wagner, Handel, and Klinger, Goethe’s Faust “Auerbach’s Keller”, only to mention a few. Its neighboring small town is Dessau, the seat of the Bauhaus. Christina grew up in an atmosphere of great music and art. She draws upon that culture and sensitivities of grace and tenacity of that time which is little found in today’s politically correct generation.
Pop- Art is one of the major art movements of the Twentieth Century, characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture, such as advertising and comic books. Pop- Art is widely interpreted as either a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism or an expansion upon them. Christina was the first artist to use Plexiglas (acrylic). Her sculptures are amazing examples of three dimensional abstract expressionism and movement in the transparency of space. She studied sculpture under Peter Augustino at Columbia University
While Pop Art, like pop music, aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture, Christina’s work challenged this mundane idea with her passion for harmony, grace and balance. She demonstrated that the two could work together and that “deconstructivism”; DaDa and Surrealism could be made popular into the jargon of the reality of the world of fashion and cosmopolitan urbanism.
Christina’s giclée collages are her response to Abstract Expressionism and marked a return to representational art. She uses images from mass culture and ordinary commerce as a relatively new development. In fact, her work incorporates the shapes and forms of her abstract expressionist foundation where each piece is a whole shape consisting of abstract forms arrayed in a kaleidoscope of shapes and forms in tension and counter tension dynamics and repose.
While Christina loathes any social preoccupation with psychoanalysis, her work is pure imagination drawn from her own pure psychic automatism, by which she proposes to express the real functioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation. She practices what the philosopher Husserl known as the father of phenomenology of subjective experience as the source of all of our knowledge of objective phenomena.
Christina’s Psychic Automatism is a surrealist technique involving spontaneous assemblage without conscious aesthetic or moral self-censorship. Automatism phenomena is perhaps parallel to the non-idiomatic improvisation of free jazz.
Christina’s Collage surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends to ruin once and for all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life.
Christina’s mass image art combines eclectic mysticism, current high-end fashion metaphors and values of her real and exaggerated impression of the society values around her. With each completed piece we see the combined segments of what man has made out of modern reality. Each piece reifies the potential of the combination of the segments to its aesthetic conclusion. As she breaks and reassembles fragments of Plexiglas to form her sculptures so she cut apart the fashion magazines of the early sixties and reassembled them to compose there own personality. In style, many of her collages are absolutely baroque and busting with dynamic life and exuberance. Her work is in the genre of other pop artist such as English pop artist Sir Peter Thomas Blake and Richard Hamilton; as well as Norwegian artist, Hariton Pushwagner. The tactility and appeal of each of her pieces is irresistible as the origins of each segment. She has made of each much more than the original form and, has immortalized what was once discarded and swept away with time.
Like all the pop artist of her time, Andy Warhol, Rauschenberg, and Liechtenstein, Christina delights in using, reusing, and converting the obvious into the new. This fact remains also true in her acrylic paintings. She is a true maker of metaphors, making the strange familiar and communicating one thing in terms of another. Formally trained also as a fashion illustrator at the New York Art Students League she uses the figures, costumes and textures to recreate styles and fashion looks of the dream world. Each image is bizarre and somewhat extraterrestrial with the art of a Spielberg or Jim Henderson’s Muppets each becomes both the reality of our world and some other.
Christina Fez-Barringten is an international artist. She has exhibited her work in New York City, Connecticut, Tennessee, Florida, Europe and the Middle East.
Living in New York, Christina and her contemporary artists: Andy Warhol, Rauschenberg, Liechtenstein, Peter Augustino and so many others opted to present the obvious in the new, a principle that remains also true in Christina’s dynamic acrylic paintings, and in her first of its kind acrylic sculptures. Rather than selling he originals Christina offers her collages as giclees. The printing technology of the fine art ink jet giclées brings out the beauty and brilliance of her collages. The nature of a giclée print let her collages jump out with deep blacks, saturation and gradations, hard to achieve with other media. Art of the Love Generation are Impressions of the psychedelic, Mod, and Hip-art of the 1960s. It seems Christina’s collages are also an expression of Pop Art, Surrealism, Fashion-Fantasy or Metaphoric-Urbanism. Yet her works are in reality a re-assemblage of deconstructed impressions of the 1960s. Her collages derived from Cut-Outs of magazine sheets, like Harpers Bazaar and Vogue, mirroring the face of that magical period. Christina created this collection of collages in 1968 regurgitating pent up sights, feelings and impressions of that time. Her work is timeless and like a hidden treasure jet to be fully discovered.
Pop- Art is a major art movement of the Twentieth Century drawn from popular mass culture, such as advertising and comic books. While Pop art, like pop music, aimed to employ images opposed to elitist culture in art, and emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of the culture; Christina’s work challenged this depressing idea with her passion for harmony, grace and balance. She believed the two could work together and that “deconstructivism”; Dada and Surrealism could be combined into the jargon of the world of fashion and cosmopolitan urbanism. Christina’s modern art is very easy to comprehend.
She was far ahead of her time when she used images from mass culture and ordinary commerce in her work. Realism and Minimalism are considered to be the current modern art movements. Her collages are a response to Abstract Expressionism and marked already then a return to representational art. San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury, England’s Soho and Woodstock stirred the beat generation and hippy’s to bring about the greatest cultural revolution of our time; of which Christina’s collages are one of the finest examples.


Barie Fez-Barringten was born 1937 in New York. He attended Christopher Columbus High School. He received his Bachelor of Fine Arts in interior design from Pratt Institute. After Several years of working for such architects as Edward Durrell Stone and Morris Lapidus; and a year of extensive travel throughout Europe he returned to the US to continue his studies. By 1968 he received his masters degree in architecture from Yale University.

Shortly before moving to New Haven to begin his studies, Barie was introduced to Christina Lefson. Christina lived at the International House., a home for graduate students on Riverside Drive. She studied fine
arts at Columbia University Howard Cook, then,
president of the International House, graciously arranged for Christina to have a large art studio in the same building, where she could work and develop her new kind of sculptures.
Her medium was Plexiglas, which had never been used in fine art sculptures.
David Rockefeller commissioned her work to be exhibited at the Chase Manhattan bank. Other exhibitions followed. The Frank Lawrence Gallery at East 57 Street and Park Ave. Showed and represented her abstract sculptures; which, thanks to her medium, and , her artistry, are not like conventional sculptures where volume is inserted into space which surrounds them. Rather, they have become part of space as air, color and light play through it.

Christina was born in Leipzig, Germany. 1956 she came to New York to study philosophy. But when she discovered the powerful and inspiring movement of modern art in New York City, and, learned to know Andy Warhol,
Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Liechtenstein and, others. She decided to use her artistic talent and, changed her goals to study fine art at both the Art Students League and School of Visual Arts.

Shortly before she intended to return to Germany, Christina was introduced to Paul Lefson by Max Waldman, a theatrical photographer (Well known for his book "Waldman on Theater", and his photos in Life Magazine). Paul and Christina got married in 1958 and lived on East 31 Street in Manhattan. Sadly, Paul Lefson died accidentally while on business in Chicago early in 1963.

To overcome the devastating loss, Christina turned to her art more than ever. She now studied sculpture at Columbia University under Professor Peter Augustini. In that period Christina learned to know Barie Fez-Barringten.

Barie and Christina married in 1966 in New Haven, while Barie studied at Yale University, under Paul Rudolf, Charles Moore, Vincent Scully and others. 1967 Barie originated the theory of:” Architecture the Making of Metaphors". At that time Barie conducted a lecture series at Yale University with Robert Venturi, John Cage, Paul Weiss, Christopher Tunnard, and others. This event is partially published in "Main Currents of Modern Thought".

After the completion of Barie's studies in February of 1968, the couple moved for a short while, (To escape the cold of winter.) to Puerto Rico. Barie was appointment junior partner of Schimmelpfennig, Ruiz and Gonzales and designed buildings for Ron Rico and El Mundo.

In Puerto Rico Christina developed a series of original and exciting collages. She was inspired by the most elaborate, rich and opulent editions of the 1960's - Harper's Bazaar and Vogue Magazines.
These collages are excellent posters and are now shown for the first time on the internet.

Back in New York, in order for Barie, now, a licensed architect to do his work, and Christina to have space for her sculptures, the couple moved in to a large loft on East 68 Street. Barie taught architecture at Pratt Institute. And, when Barie accepted the challenge of Mayor Lindsey to bring the first ""Earth Day" to New York City, he encouraged his students to build the stage for that event. Paul Newman and people from Sesame Street, Aly McGraw and others furnished the educational entertainment. The following year John Mc Connell enlisted Barie's assistance to stage the epic Earth Day event in Central Park and to get the General Secretary of the United Nations, U Thant, to proclaim Earth Day as an international holiday (March 21).

In addition, Barie founded a New York not-for-profit corporation: "Laboratories for Metaphoric Environments" with one of its goals to provide under privileged children a glimpse of the creative excitement of the building industry from cabinet work, to carpentry and design. There in order to illustrate his teaching he produced a series of words-drawings now in the hands of several collectors.

In 1973, Barie accepted the challenge to develop two vacation resorts in Tennessee; Sugar Tree and English Mountain. And, in addition, he designed homes for a development in Belmopan, Belize, British Honduras.

Also, Barie the artist developed a series of brilliantly envisioned drawings of futuristic metaphors, which he exhibited in conjunction with Christina's Plexiglas sculpture, at the Jonathan Gallery in Jackson, and in Memphis, Tennessee.

Later, he was recruited by the "Gulf Oil Real Estate Development Company" to be its lead project manager for a new computer building and other new structures in Texas. Because of that, the couple had moved to Houston. Also, Barie always interested to inspire young people in his profession, taught part-time at the University of Houston; and, later, fulltime, as associate professor at college station's Texas A&M University. Professor Fez-Barringten student's benefited by his friendship with the astronaut Joe Allen. Together they looked way into the future and designed space stations furniture and other imagined designed necessities.

By 1981, the Fez-Barringten's moved from Texas to Saudi Arabia where Barie trained Saudi Arabian students to work in architecture department of The Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO).

After moving to Riyadh, Barie got busy and designed 21 new towns for the people of Saudi Arabia. He also designed sport stadiums, office buildings and other building types.

In Riyadh Christina developed, out of necessity a new style of pattern-like paintings. For in this Muslim country objects can not be portrayed through art. 1986, Christina gave a major exhibition of her acrylic paintings sponsored by the American Ambassador in Saudi Arabia. In addition, she taught and was the judge of important art events, especially during the five years when Barie was Professor of Architecture at King Faisal University, located in Dammam on the Gulf of Arabia. Professor Barie Fez-Barringten's articles of metaphors, written during that time, are published in learned journals in the USA, Middle East and Europe. 1999 the Fez Barringtens left Saudi Arabia...............


Image insert

1. Appetite

This collage expresses the unsatiated hunger, appetite, longing and dreams of mankind for all the tangibles.
The printing technology of the fine art inkjet giclées brings out the beauty and brilliance of her collages. The nature of a giclée print let her collages jump out with deep blacks, saturation and gradations, hard to achieve with other media. Art of the Love Generation are Impressions of the psychedelic, Mod, and Hip-art of the 1960s. It seems Christina’s collages are also an expression of Pop Art, Surrealism, Fashion-Fantasy or Metaphoric-Fiction. Yet her works are in reality a re-assemblage of deconstructed impressions of the 1960s. Her collages derived from cutouts of magazine sheets, like Harpers Bazaar and Vogue, mirroring the face of that magical period. Christina created this collection of collages in 1968 regurgitating pent up sights, feelings and impressions of that time. Her work is timeless. And, like a hidden treasure yet to be fully discovered.


Image insert


2. Taproots
This collage incorporates the shapes and forms of an abstract expressionist foundation. It is a kaleidoscope of shapes and forms in tension and counter tension, dynamics and repose. This work is pure imagination depicting automatism and repetition by which to express a real function of thought.

Art of the Love Generation are Impressions of the psychedelic, Mod, and Hip-art of the 1960s. It seems Christina’s collages are also an expression of Pop Art, Surrealism, Fashion-Fantasy or Metaphoric-Fiction. Yet her works are in reality a re-assemblage of deconstructed impressions of the 1960s. Her collages derived from cutouts of magazine sheets, like Harpers Bazaar and Vogue, mirroring the face of that magical period. Christina created this collection of collages in 1968 regurgitating pent up sights, feelings and impressions of that time. Her work is timeless and like a hidden treasure yet to be fully discovered.



Image insert


3. Kiss
Lips, heads, and flowers orbit a sky surrounding an eye looking at the yellows, cerulean blues, lavenders and burgundy rainbow. Each are made a family of separated identities in a new structure of this kiss context. The clouds of color carry the content of the figures in an artist’s pallet of complementary hues and tones. All of these images are created in a spontaneous surreal technique called Automatism

Automatism is a surrealist technique involving spontaneous writing, drawing, or the like practiced without conscious aesthetic or moral self-censorship. "Pure psychic automatism" was how André Breton, surrealism's founder, defined surrealism, and while the definition has proved capable of significant expansion, automatism remains of prime importance in the movement. Seeing many of Christina’s works one immediately thinks of Duchamp’s “Nude Descending the staircase”. Duchamp discusses his work saying, `I discarded brushes and explored the mind more than the hands.’
Christina’s work speaks across centuries, cultures and genres. To own her work is to posses a still life of importance and value.


Image insert

4. Opulent:
The focal point is a well dressed aristocrat surrounded by white horses, damsels and exotic dogs as a clouds of ochre, persimmon, blues and gold. Art of the so-called Love Generation are Impressions of the psychedelic, Mod, and Hip-art of the sixties. Christina’s Psychic Automatism is graphic memoirs made during the sixties. While they seem to be Pop Art, Surreal, Fantasy Metaphors they are really a re-assemblage of deconstructed reality. Christina created this collection of collages in 1968 regurgitating pent up sights, sounds, feelings, and impressions of her three creative days between Yale’s school of architecture and Manhattan’s “art scene”. She did this in Puerto Rico while TV programs like:” Laugh In” and the first run of Star Trek was airing in the states. At Yale, they gave a lecture series published as “Architecture the Making of Metaphors” encouraged by Dean Charles Moore with John Cage, Paul Weiss, Robert Venturi and others. At the time, Timothy Leary was advocating the wonders of LSD while the young were tripping out on Broadway and loving at Woodstock. Society listened to acid rock and painted psychedelic illustrations and paintings. They listened while crowds proclaimed against the Vietnam War to “Make Love and Not War” while the musical Hair reaped in millions at the box office.


Image insert

5. Quixote

Like the famous legend of Don Quixote de la Mancha, the lady is dressed in warrior black with a great black hat. The images are a quiet story of the pride and proclamation of knight hood of great and single purpose. Collage is the making of metaphors, which make the strange familiar. Quixote is now a person who is victorious and the metaphor is the bits and pieces of constructed icon combined into the new reality of this surreal automatic expression. Like its Height-Ashbury Love generation contemporaries, this work conjures and freely lets psychic and poetic realities become a medulla upon which to feast the eyes and heart. The Baby Boomers of today grew up in the midst of the greatest cultural revolution of our time, a revolution, which emerged out the beat generation into the hippie’s creativity in San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury and England’s Soho. It was the beginning of the culture of youth where being over thirty was ancient.


Image insert


6. Mystery:

As the period, this collage restates the metaphors of a culture, past and future in the form of women in exotic and colorful costumes. Are they gypsies, nobility, or part of a kings harem? Christina created this collection of collages in 1968 regurgitating pent up sights, sounds, feelings, and impressions of her three creative days between Yale’s school of architecture and Manhattan’s “art scene”.
It is a collage of bobbles, bangles and beads with surreal double images and decorated faces hiding the true identity of the one person they represent. Everywhere there are hints of her identity but she still remains illusive.


Image insert

7. Easter

A new beginning in the Grace of God, this collage exhibits the exuberance of victory;
the joy of man and nature of the Lord’s triumph over evil and death.
The printing technology of the fine art inkjet giclées brings out the beauty and brilliance of her collages. The nature of a giclée print let her collages jump out with deep blacks, saturation and gradations, hard to achieve with other media.
Art of the Love Generation are Impressions of the psychedelic, Mod, and Hip-art of the 1960s. It seems Christina’s collages are also an expression of Pop Art, Surrealism, Fashion-Fantasy or Metaphoric-Fiction. Yet her works are in reality a re-assemblage of deconstructed impressions of the 1960s. Her collages derived from cutouts of magazine sheets, like Harpers Bazaar and Vogue, mirroring the face of that magical period. Christina created this collection of collages in 1968 regurgitating pent up sights, feelings and impressions of that time. Her work is timeless. And like a hidden treasure yet to be fully discovered.


Image insert

8. Creation
A new beginning in the Grace of God. This collage exhibits the exuberance of victory.
The joy of man and nature of the Lord’s triumph over evil and death.

The printing technology of the fine art ink jet giclées brings out the beauty and brilliance of her collages. The nature of a giclée print let her collages jump out with deep blacks, saturation and gradations, hard to achieve with other media.
Art of the Love Generation are Impressions of the psychedelic, Mod, and Hip-art of the 1960s. It seems Christina’s collages are also an expression of Pop Art, Surrealism, Fashion-Fantasy or Metaphoric-Fiction. Yet her works are in reality a re-assemblage of deconstructed impressions of the 1960s. Her collages derived from cutouts of magazine sheets, like Harpers Bazaar and Vogue, mirroring the face of that magical period. Christina created this collection of collages in 1968 regurgitating pent up sights, feelings and impressions of that time. Her work is timeless. And like a hidden treasure yet to be fully discovered.

Image insert

9. Lord’s Supper table
The world of the unseen let’s Christina sees Jesus surrounded by worshipers in a swirl of ochre, browns, blues and whites. A winged angel and others in ancient costumes compose a swirl of time and progression of the essence and meaning of communion and fellowship, not religious but a vision of our relationship with the Lord.
While Christina loathes any social preoccupation with psychoanalysis, her work is pure imagination drawn from her own pure psychic automatism, by which she proposes to express the real functioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation. She practices what the philosopher Husserl known as the father of phenomenology of subjective experience as the source of all of our knowledge of objective phenomena. Christina’s Psychic Automatism is a surrealist technique involving spontaneous assemblage without conscious aesthetic or moral self-censorship. Automatism phenomena are perhaps parallel to the non-idiomatic improvisation of free jazz.
Christina’s Collage surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends to ruin once and for all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life.

Image insert

10. Maria
There is no doubt that this modern day icon represents a female form another time and place. With her reverence of the mother of Jesus she surrounds the hallowed face with soft pastel roses, and winged birds, clouds and shy. This new vision of holiness is a priceless collectors item which can only be compared with the medieval icons. This piece does not deny or embolden misinterpretation but simply expresses the purity and peace of faith and hope.
Christina’s mass image art combines eclectic mysticism, current high-end fashion metaphors and values of her real and exaggerated impression of the society values around her. With each completed piece we see the combined segments of what man has made out of modern reality. Each piece reifies the potential of the combination of the segments to its aesthetic conclusion. As she breaks and reassembles fragments of Plexiglas to form her sculptures so she cut apart the fashion magazines of the early sixties and reassembled them to compose there own personality. In style, many of her collages are absolutely baroque and busting with dynamic life and exuberance

Image insert

11. Maya
To the Hindus Maya is The power of a god or demon to transform a concept into an element of the sensible world. It is the transitory, manifold appearance of the sensible world, which obscures the undifferentiated spiritual reality from which it originates; the illusory appearance of the sensible world. It is another term for the Mayan culture and this collage places a blond female head on female body surrounded by swirl of white and ochre fabrics.

Like all the pop artist of her time, Andy Warhol, Rauschenberg, Liechtenstein, she delights in using and reusing the obvious in to the new. This fact remains also true in her acrylic paintings. She is a true maker of metaphors, making the strange familiar and communicating one thing in terms of another. Formally trained also as a fashion illustrator at the New York Art Students League she uses the figures, costumes and textures to recreate styles and fashion looks of the dream world. Each image is bizarre and somewhat extraterrestrial with the art of a Spielberg or Jim Henderson’s Muppets each becomes both the reality of our world and some other.

Image insert

12. Xanadu
Mongol city founded by Kublai Khan, 1625, Anglicized form of Shang-tu. Sense of "dream place of magnificence and luxury" derives from Coleridge's poem (1816). It is a place of great beauty, luxury, and contentment. A Shangri-La expressed by this exuberant female in swirl of fabrics above and below her upper and lower torso. Her eyes only peek out from behind the swirl and dares us to enjoy the dance, music and excitement of this instant caught by Christina.
While the techniques of collage were first used at the time of the invention of paper in China around 200 BC the use of collage remained very limited until the 10th century in Japan, when calligraphers began to apply glued paper, using texts on surfaces, when writing their poems. Her work cries out for words and music only to be found by the viewer. In the 19th century, collage methods also were used among hobbyists for memorabilia (i.e. applied to photo albums) and books (i.e. Hans Christian Andersen, Carl Spitzweg).In this way Christina’s home is filled family photo collages. It is her natural way to express her ideas and relationships of people, places and events. The term collage derives from the French "colle" meaning, "glue”. This term was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art.

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13. Sun-He
The Korean name conjures light and bursts with energy of musical, acting and artistic talent. This collage is a sole figure of a female wearing a bronze billowing skirt below a great yellow and yellow ocher middle and above her bare waste a copper brown silk and leather topping. Some say Zixiao (Sun-he) was formally Emperor Wen (of Eastern Wu) was a son and one-time crown prince of Eastern Wu's founding emperor Sun Quan during the Three Kingdoms period.

Art of the so-called Love Generation are Impressions of the psychedelic, Mod, and Hip-art of the sixties. Christina’s Psychic Automatism is graphic memoirs made during the sixties. While they seem to be Pop Art, Surreal, Fantasy Metaphors they are really a re-assemblage of deconstructed reality.

Christina’s Giclées Collages combines the beauty and brilliance of this printing technology. While photographic prints are somewhat dull and limited a giclée print let her collages pop with deep blacks, saturation and gradations hard to achieve with other media.


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14. CoCo
Like Picasso Christina rearranges the human figure in this surreal pink and rose colored burst of petals with her head set in a lower ovary (ovule). Like its name sake for a tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits; widely planted throughout the tropics these blossoms are prolific and bountiful. It will be a treasure to its owner to remind about the possibilities of life and creativity with in each person.

While Pop Art, like pop music, aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture, Christina’s work challenged this mundane idea with her passion for harmony, grace and balance. She demonstrated that the two could work together and that “deconstructivism”; DaDa and Surrealism could be made popular into the jargon of the reality of the world of fashion and cosmopolitan urbanism.


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15. Narcisse
The word is derived from a Greek myth. Narcissus was a handsome Greek youth who rejected the desperate advances of the nymph Echo. As punishment, he was doomed to fall in love with his own reflection in a pool of water. Unable to consummate his love, Narcissus pined away and changed into the flower that bears his name, the narcissus.
Freud believed that some narcissism is an essential part of all of us from birth.
Andrew Morrison claims that, in adults, a reasonable amount of healthy narcissism allows the individual's perception of his needs to be balanced in relation to others.
Some say Narcisse is about sex, religion, power and deceit. Red, gold, purple swirls surround this female seemingly skipping though life.
While Christina loathes any social preoccupation with psychoanalysis, her work is pure imagination drawn from her own pure psychic automatism, by which she proposes to express the real functioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation. She practices what the philosopher Husserl known as the father of phenomenology of subjective experience as the source of all of our knowledge of objective phenomena.

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16. Salome
Persimmon, gold beige and black furs and adorned with pearls and Arabic hangings is the laughing female face. The shapes and forms are only fantasy shaped animal icons creating a new icon of the famed seductress set on a purple background.

“As she broke the Plexiglas into fragments, she too tore the magazine’s pages. As she reassembled the Plexiglas fragments to a form a new reality so she assembled the bits and pieces of magazine sheets to form metaphors of spirit, fashion, urbanism, and a fantasy life and into a visual memoir of the Love Generation”.

Christina’s pop art collages are now available as fine art ink jet giclée printed reproductions as the entire collection of the originals is being kept as part of the artist’s estate. This is being done to preserve their integrity and value of their importance and value. Each of the fine art giclees are individually signed and dated and be part of any connoisseur’s fine art collection. Each is truly one of kind, unique and remarkable achievements. With the advent of digital photography and the slow demise of mechanical lithography, digital ink jet high-end printing is expanding exponentially. Giclée loosely means spraying or squirting in French. Christina’s collage giclees are characteristics of a true digital art print:

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17. Vampira
Vampira portrays that seductive woman who uses her sensuality to exploit men. In red silk fur with rode lame she reclines open armed and backward on a gigantic lipstick red divan.
Vampira’s dark eyes and white skinned arm are all that shows covered by the blood red power of red on a purple background. Christina’s Pop- Art is part of one of the major art movements of the Twentieth Century characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture, such as advertising and comic books. Pop- Art is widely interpreted as either a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism or an expansion upon them. Christina was the first artist to use Plexiglas (acrylic). Her sculptures are amazing examples of three dimensional abstract expressionism and movement in the transparency of space. Christina studied sculpture under Peter Augustino at Columbia University
While Pop Art, like pop music, aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture, Christina’s work challenged this mundane idea with her passion for harmony, grace and balance.


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18. Turandot
Discovered in Heidelberg in 1904 by Max Wolf is a minor planet orbiting the sun. Christina’s cousin was an astronomer on the staff of the Max Plank Institute in Heidelberg and as a German appreciates the Turandot of German mythology and Turandot is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, to an Italian libretto by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni, based on the play Turandot by Carlo Gozzi. Turandot is a Persian word and name meaning "the daughter of Turan",
Turan being a region of Central Asia which used to be part of the Persian Empire. In Persian, the fairy tale is known as "Turandokht", with "dokht" being a contraction for "Dokhtar" (meaning "Daughter"). Indeed shows the daughter of Turan in great Russian furs.
The story of Turandot was taken from the Persian collection of stories called The Book of One Thousand and One Nights or Hezar o-yek shab (1722 French translation Les Mille et une Nuits by Francois Petis de la Croix), where the character of "Turandokht" as a cold Chinese princess was found. But this story about a Chinese princess bears much resemblance to Persian poet Nizami's story about a Russian princess being pursued by the Sassanid king Behram. The story of Turandokht is one of the best known from de la Croix's translation. Christina cloaks this African Queen in exotic mink, ermine, and fox in an icon of nobility and stature. This vision was merely a precursor to the twenty years she would later spend in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia where her art was very well received in first of its kind one lady shows in the desert capital city of Riyadh.

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19. Mercedes
While Mercedes is a city in SW Uruguay, on the Río Negro the Infanta Maria de las Mercedes of Spain (1880–1904), Princess of the Asturias, for all 24 years of her life the Heiress Presumptive of the Spanish royal crown, and for a period in 1885–1886, the extant Head of the State of Spain, was born as Doña María de las Mercedes de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena, eldest daughter of King Alfonso XII of Spain (Don Alfonso de Borbón de Cádiz y Borbón de España).

Christina engulfs the slender royal in baby blue ostrich feather, silks and vertical high reaching blue timed domed minaret. This vertical axis grisaille is contrast on a stark black background metaphorically linking the royal lady with her dreamy castle and royal structures.
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20 Luna

The black background sets off the blues and lavender shapes and forms which seems to be a female in flight and the moons way of making shadows in the sky. Part of the abstracted spot design is parts of the moon hovering over the lower blue forms in moon’s shadows.
Christina’s mass image art combines eclectic mysticism, current high-end fashion metaphors and values of her real and exaggerated impression of the society values around her. With each completed piece, we see the combined segments of what man has made out of modern reality. Each piece reifies the potential of the combination of the segments to its aesthetic conclusion. As she breaks and reassembles, fragments of Plexiglas to form her sculptures so she cut apart the fashion magazines of the early sixties and reassembled them to compose there own personality. In style, many of her collages are absolutely baroque and busting with dynamic life and exuberance. Her work is in the genre of other pop artist such as English pop artist Sir Peter Thomas Blake and Richard Hamilton; as well as Norwegian artist, Hariton Pushwagner. The tactility and appeal of each of her pieces is irresistible as the origins of each segment.
She has made of each much more than the original form and, have immortalized what was once discarded and swept away with time. They have been become costumes of the legends they represent.

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21. Gemini
Gemini is a harlequin of double personality and image this two female figured icon wrapped in pink, persimmon, ocher, gold, red and black furs and plush fabric.
The face look at you and away from each other reifying Christina’s understanding of the Gemini star sign. Gemini is the third sign of the zodiac in astrology. Also called Twins. They are together and share the colors and luxury of a common context.
Like all the pop artist of her time, Andy Warhol, Rauschenberg, Liechtenstein, she delights in using and reusing the obvious in to the new. This fact remains also true in her acrylic paintings. She is a true maker of metaphors, making the strange familiar and communicating one thing in terms of another. Formally trained also as a fashion illustrator at the New York Art Students League she uses the figures, costumes and textures to recreate styles and fashion looks of the dream world. Each image is bizarre and somewhat extraterrestrial with the art of a Spielberg or Jim Henderson’s Muppets each becomes both the reality of our world and some other.
Christina’s work speaks across centuries, cultures and genres.
To own her work is to posses a still life of importance and value.

To see the image inserts please see Christina’s art on their website.
For more of her work and background see her website: www. bariefez-barringten.com
©2006 Christina &Barie Fez-Barringten
(Under title 17 of U.S. code by section 106; 1976 copyright act)




The pharahons built pyramids, and bankers skyscrapers: will architecture always be a symbol of power?

My Urban Legacy: “Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism”
Topics covered:
The art of Urbanizing
Mitigating our Urban Dilemma
Choose and Manage Urban Contexts
Natural vs. Manmade Cities and the Urban State of Mind

Lecture #2
14,976 words on 47 pages October 30, 2007
By Barie Fez-Barringten
www.bariefez-barringten.com

Introduction:
As I promised in my first lecture I will show “what can be done to make cities livable and worthy to be called home”.
“Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” aptly describes our cosmopolitan and urban abilities to agree, disagree, peruse common goals, tolerate stress and congestion, discern between community and privacy and distribute precious resources. It is these attributes and our persistence
that will make cities livable and worthy to be called home”. Today I will present to you the opportunities and efforts to urbanize and what you can look for in monitoring your surroundings.
Amongst others, the League of Women Voters encourages Americans to make democracy work by both informed consent and participation. Urbanization is at the heart of today’s agenda affecting immigration, defense and health care. I have received an urban culture and believe that it is my responsibility to likewise share this culture.
I also believe that if we were to share our culture with others it would positively affect our urban surroundings. The culture of cosmopolitan culture is our legacy.

Because of the way, I became an architect I always considered my voice my profession, and I always professed urbanism, to me urbanism is truly significant, its settlements, built-environment, and achievements. Urbanism was my family’s way of life in the context of my birth, living and work; they were all integrated and so full of opportunity, good will and life. It was every thing I could ever imagine and I could not believe that there was any life outside of urbanity.
As I matured, I realized that there was an undefined and illusive “Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism”.

In a nutshell, what I s wrong with our cities?
No dissertation on the “Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” would be relevant without also noting what’s wrong in our urbanized cities and what can be done to make it right.
Although, as you may have already gathered from my first lecture what’s wrong is not always solvable on a day-to-day, project, or municipal level but needs much broader policy changes at the highest levels of government, society and commerce. It is not only a design and planning problem, but a social and political problem as well. Although my former Yale professor and architect, Peter Millard, once pointed out that human nature likes to take one problem and add so many more so that they can be overwhelmed and not do anything, claiming that they are overwhelmed and overcome by multiple burdens. At home, families get stressed by bunching all the angst in one moment while society’s leaders never seem to have either time or the mindset to include urbanism on their agenda. Perhaps there are too many lobbyists distracting them from their mission. On the other hand, they deal with urbanism at another level on a daily basis. Urbanism as civilization itself is a “weighty matter”.

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What are my qualifications to know what to do about urbanism?
While I may be retired from full time teaching, Lee County Government service and private architectural practice, I have not retired from the profession of communicating urbanism.

After all, as a practicing architect and urbanist even my advice to clients and my drawings all communicated urbanism’s conditions, ideals, goals and operations, even writing programs, city plans, site plans, development plans and building performance specifications. For the Gulf Oil Corporation I wrote their policies and procedures for all their construction and real estate development fast track projects. John Wiley and sons ultimately published it. Later, in Saudi Arabia I did the same thing for ARAMCO and several royal family and privately business conglomerates. My job was to see the big picture then sift it down into specific and practical elements.

Many of these works resulted in tremendous expansion of business and successful practices. Not to “toot-my-own-horn”, but I discovered in all of this that I am a great organizer and know that if I can do this so can others.
It is for this reason I have prepared these lectures and believe that “together we can do what alone we cannot”. On the other hand, I am a great believer that one person can make differences, and that one person can change urban contexts. For example, the way that Robert Moses, Rockefeller, Astor, Vanderbilt and so many others built facilities that attracted the people that urbanized cities.

From where have I gleaned this information?
Because, in part we are the product of our cities, we cannot afford to be irresponsible about its shape, ethics, and morals and well functioning. Urbanism has become such a popular subject that there are many books and commercially published articles, which have now become available on the Internet. It is from these articles I have gleaned some of the definitions, information and statistics I site in my explanations. Like many other scholars, I too look to other scholars and the results of their research; and, this field is well researched.

If more people were proud of their cities, they would encourage its betterment.
For many, cities equivocate to an identity and as we cheer for our favorite team, we do so as fans of a particular city name and location. We are rooting for our own identity, metaphor and significance.

Urbanism is manifest in our pride, how we grade our city is a measure of that pride.
The consensus we express in forming our city or what we patronize expresses our culture and identity. I believe that were this spirit d’cor prevalent it would contribute to the improvement of our cities. For example, snowbirds that have their home in another city may not call SWFL their home. You know, home is where your heart is and where your treasure lies.
Is there a city of which you are proud?

Why is the study of urbanism important?
The very idea of the city is heroic, monumental and worth supporting. We do with teams what we think we are doing with our families, government and community, communicating our rightful statues as authorized members of the strong, sovereign and civil society. Understanding urbanism is as essential a study as understanding ancient, classical, traditional and contemporary civilization, which has been the work of so many including scholars and theologians. As I said urbanism as civilization, it is a “weighty matter”.
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Who determines what’s going to be built in South West Florida?
So, although SWFL has a lot of building units the stewardship of these developments is pretty much left to a few permanent residents. And these get precious little involvement from citizens but a very strong voice from real estate developers who are much more motivated.

Why each of us should care about the built-environment?
Urbanity has a life of its own when family and friends let us down the city’s commerce, institutions and facilities shore us up, educate and occupy our life with a career and vocation. The pop song “Downtown” so well describes how “we can forget all our troubles, forget all our cares and go downtown”.

How many times did I find answers in the public library, community educational outreach programs, the street, and jobs because of the proximity of one to another employer or clients, medical help in walk-in clinics and housing by going from door to door in a neighborhood I liked.

My best anecdote about the way people care for there cities is one of the many little old ladies I chatted with in a little Italian city.
She not only gave me directions, but also explained for several hours each landmark and important edifice I would pass on the way. She knew when it was built and who were the architects and the builders. This particular woman could not have had an education past the sixth grade and yet she had a passion and, like a priest imparted that passion with diligence and responsibility. I had a similar experience on an Island in the Persian Gulf with Shiite Moslems about their small urban city’s building, arts and monuments. I have many locally books and my own photos of this place. They intuitively shared their culture of cosmopolitan urbanism.

Are there urban planning tools to focus public attention on blighted areas?
Urban Clusters is a very recent planning concept but one which is ancient and already prevalent in major metropolitan areas all over the world. It was only being recognized to facilitate legislative attention and funding and to permit rezoning, zoning in blighted, and deteriorating urban and suburban cities, cities that may not even be an urban area. For example, the recent North Fort Myers “Community Development Plan” calls for three Town Centers in North Fort Myers.

What is the Florida Government doing to address urbanism?
Twelve years ago, in 1995, Richard A. Pettigrew, under the Honorable Lawton Chiles, was Chairman of the Florida Governor's Commission for a Sustainable South Florida and delivered
“South Florida: A Sustainable Vision For 2020”.
Amongst the five broad principles was to Limit Urban Sprawl - establish urban development boundaries to protect environmental resources and encourage urban redesign and redevelopment supported by good public transportation.


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Concerned to transform urban sprawl into quality development patterns, the report noted that rapid population growth and sprawling development patterns are leading South Florida down a path toward wall-to-wall suburbanization.

How does the government define urban sprawl?
The report continues, that the proliferation of urban sprawl is a development pattern characterized by scattered, decentralized, low-density development that is not functionally related to adjacent land uses-is swallowing up undeveloped areas in the region at an alarming rate. This results in the depletion of natural and other environmental resources and severely threatens the future viability of the Everglades ecosystem.

What problems does the government find that causes urban sprawl?
The growth patterns of South Florida encourage automobile reliance, which exacerbates the lack of coordination between land use decisions and sitting of transportation facilities and other infrastructure. Related consequences include competition for scarce water resources, pollution from storm water runoff, inefficient urban design, and rapid conversion of agricultural lands and other open spaces to urban uses.
The report concludes with the four pillars for improving South Florida's urban form to:
1. Establish urban development boundaries;
2. Ensure travel choices, mobility, and access through public transit,
3. Achieve infill development and redevelopment, and
4. Increase use of good urban design.

So what is the government’s report card about curbing these problems?
We are now nearly at a midpoint of the vision’s goal with about twelve years remaining and most of us, with the exception of the restoration of the Everglades, perceive little progress and a further deterioration of our home in Southwest Florida.
Do any of you have a perception of the state of the urban environment in this area, perhaps your neighborhood or nearby area?

What has been done to solve the urban crisis?
However, some of the commission’s objectives are in the works. It said it would establish urban development boundaries and recommend management and regulatory measures to achieve needed protection and restoration of the ecosystem and sustainable development within those boundaries.
Many of Florida’s Development Services panning districts have implemented their five-year comprehensive development plan and community planning boards.
These help to use urban design principles to foster individual community identity, create a sense of place, promote pedestrian oriented neighborhoods and town centers, encourage the use of public transportation, and increase urban quality of life.

What are the problems that still persist?
Many of the states planners now promote in-fill-development, redevelopment and reward developers that choose to build in the "right" place. However, many of the local and state courts still agree to settle in favor of tenacious development interests. Interests which often put profits ahead of the public good and invest their wealth in professional teams that well understand the typical town-fathers needs and necessities.

All around us there are examples of missed opportunities and run-away growth and development. One such is our traffic intersections as in the city of Cape Coral, I’m sure there is one in your neighborhood, which has three or four major streets intersecting without any architectural design features or landscape. One of the contributing cause is that such traffic planers have not considered other aspects of design and organization, Furthermore there is a blaring absence of a process and professionals in that process to bring the art of metaphors, architecture and design to make this intersection a center of civic pride. There are many cities, which add traffic circles, intersection circular light features as in Houston, and other means to punctuate the intersection.

Are there any non-government initiatives?
It could be the call of its’ chamber of commerce to harness its wealthy city-benefactors to find a business opportunity, as did the Saudi Arabia’s mayor of Jeddah who enticed businessmen to commission sculptors to design works at many intersections of his city.
He learned this lesson from visiting European cities and simply brought a very old fashioned idea into the present.

How can we use free enterprise to benefit our cities?
Most of the time, as a business, developers usually “buy-cheap and sell-dear” like any other commercial business.

To them land development is not a outcome of industry, developing the natural, human and financial wealth for the community, but only to benefit their corporate portfolio and investment interest of it s stock holders and investors.
The beneficiaries are usually not indigenous but an absentee business. Over the years, governments have developed agencies, statutes, codes and ordnances to provide guidelines and limits to protect the people’s assets. However, there are remarkable and outstanding developers of landmark exceptions as the Jeddah’s many sculptures on its city’s “traffic circles”, plazas filled with statues and fountains, Fort Myers’ old post office plaza, its city hall, library plaza, Centennial Park, and even landmark buildings such the Manhattan’s Empire State building, and Gulf Arab States Dubai and Riyadh Towers to only mention a few.

What are the basics to forming a city?
I have found that settlements form cites when the residents collectively need an authoritative corporal body, which can form armies, and municipal agencies, which can employ beurocrats and civil servants to provide services, law and order, build and maintain public facilities and manage land and property ownership.

The difference is that the population drives natural urbanization or its surrogates while synthetic by a third party, which can enable and support natural urbanization.

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What is the difference between population and third party urban structures?
Natural settlements usually are site-specific emanating from a local geographical labor and material resource while an artificial development is initiated for profit as a land and real estate business, colonies as for political occupation, or when kings conquer, hold and expand their kingdom.
Natural growth occurred when in the so-called “Industrial Age”; the growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. This was called the Industrial Revolution.
Later, in the United States from 1860 to 1910, the invention of railroads reduced transportation costs, and large manufacturing centers began to emerge, thus allowing migration from rural to city areas.

However, cities during those periods of time were deadly places to live in, due to health problems resulting from contaminated water and air, and communicable diseases. Still the growth was natural where the people came first and land development followed to house and supports the new populations.
American cities absorbed the populations from various global calamities such as from Ireland between 1845 and 1849 when the Great Irish Famine drove many Irish to New York City where now live more Irish than in Ireland.
Were any of you or your family members’ part of that migration?

What are the remarkable examples of urbanization?
In the Great Depression of the 1930s, cities were hard hit by unemployment, especially those with a base in heavy industry. In the U.S. urbanization rate increased forty to eighty percent during 1900-1990. The Cuban revolution of 1959 eventually filled Miami with 2 million Cubans and the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, which killed an estimated 675,000 Americans.

Today, the world's population is slightly over half urban, with millions still streaming annually into the growing cities of Asia, Africa and Latin America. There has also been a shift to suburbs, perhaps to avoid crime and traffic.
Either by election, coercion or manipulation citizens or their representatives may surrender their right to form a city to a proxy. This could be a feudal lord, conqueror, institution, or commercial interests.




Has free enterprise and city building gone out of control?
Cities formed as a business by an adversary primarily concerned about its own profit is an adversary in that it is not a surrogate and vies for its own optimum benefits.
Today sub-urbanization and urbanization has become a major industry and economic sector driving the U.S., state and local economies making land development into an industry owned and operated by major corporations who synthesize and manufacture housing, commercial and industrial properties as an industrial synthetic product.
As a product, it is subject to the same policies and procedures as the manufacture of cars, computers and “widgets”. It is planned, built and sold on an assembly line and as synthetic as a plastic cup or automobile.
As the culture was shocked by the industrial revolution rebelling against machine-made as opposed to man-made products, synthetic-built environments are also taking their toll on the ecology, energy consumption and cultural metaphors.

What are some of the other ways cities are forming and expanding?
Metropolitan Urban Areas (446 words)
An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. This term is at one end of the spectrum dividing suburban and rural areas. An urban area is more frequently called a city or town such as Naples, Fort Myers, Cape Coral and Bonita Springs. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization.

Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that are socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market. Long Island’s bedroom communities to offices in Manhattan are one such example.

In France, an urban area is a “zone” encompassing an area of built-up growth called an "urban unit" and a close definition to the North American “urban area” and its commuter belt, and is similar to our definition of “metropolitan area” or “metroplex”.

In the United States, there are two categories of urban areas. The term "urbanized area" denotes an urban area of 50,000 or more people.
Urban areas under 50,000 people are called urban clusters.
Urbanized areas were first delineated in the United States in the 1950 census, while urban clusters (sometimes called “Town Centers”) were added in the 2000 census. However, we know that an urb is any populated area, which makes our small villages and towns urban as well. So this means that these terms are defining a much more complex and large problem. Urban clusters include those thousands of small-populated villages and towns.

There are Twin cities formed by merging into urban centers, which are born in close geographic proximity, and then grow into each other over time.
The term Twin Cities is used in the United States often to refer to the cities Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin, Dallas–Fort Worth area, Niagara Falls, Ontario and Niagara Falls, New York and Germany’s Ulm and New-Ulm.

Other examples of cities formed by merging are New York City (five boroughs, historically especially between Manhattan and Brooklyn), London which grew from its cores in the City of London and the City of Westminster to encompass many other towns and villages, Budapest which is the amalgamation of Buda and Pest and Hong Kong (Victoria City and Kowloon). In each case these city’s population increased, the quality of its built environment increased but so did urban squallier and in some cases its slums.
Can you name some other metropolitan areas?

What was one of the first modern causes of major urbanization?
If you said the first and second world wars, natural disasters and political turmoil, you would be close.
As the advent of modern art was to our western culture so was the Industrial Revolution. Modern art changed the way we perceive the world while the Industrial Revolution changed the way we think of urbanity.
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The Industrial Revolution took place in the world’s great natural cites and made them greater and more populated. It spurned a revolution in the design and construction of residences in which to house labor and management in tenements, row houses and apartments.
Support facilities such as parks, schools, and hospitals were built rapidly accompanied by all sorts of entertainment and recreational facilities. As the towns were built up around factories, ports and trade railroads were built and its impact on all cities and Railroad terminals were one of the great building types of their time.

What were some of the Industrial Revolutions major milestones?
Iron and steel, and glass, long spans and plenty of light, which was first built in Paris, designed by Paxton for a world’s Fair.

Leipzig’s Hauptbanhauf, Grand Central, Pennsylvania Station, Union station Chattanooga and so many others were glorious public buildings boasting the new prosperity and potential of industrialization.


The industrial revolution, proliferation of oil related industries and the opening of international markets gave the corporate predominance in American culture, which spilled over into property development
The real estate development corporation which built inside natural cities now expanded to build outside of natural cities into the suburbs and to develop Global or World cities as prominent centers of trade, banking, finance, innovations, inventions, products, and markets such as cloths, shoes, suits, dresses, roofing, siding, and even buildings. These were marketed in national journals such as the Sears Catalog and Rotogravure. Whereas "mega city" referred to any city of enormous size, a global city is one of enormous power or influence... Examples of such cities include London, New York City, Paris and Tokyo.

What are some the ways city builders have innovated to handle the increased population?
Urbanism has its own language as when urban architects refer to spines as the dominant linear feature while a ring road is built around a city avoiding the city’s congestion.

The Central Business District, called the CBD, is the urban core while every urban area has traffic ways, sidewalks, ambulatories, open space, cross intersections, nodes, plazas, open space and vest pocket parks on urban blocks to fill the space left by the demolition of a an existing building.
When planning a building the urban architect examines the floor- to -area ratio to let light and air into dense urban areas and provides easements for utilities and common access.
Books and ordinances have been written defining the differences between community and privacy and the hierarchies of increasingly public and private spaces as Yale and Cambridge. Modern planners have invented circular, radiant, Green belt, Matrix and cuneiform (swastika) planning geometries.
Urbanism’s more modern innovations include elevated walkways connecting towers as Ralph Durden designed for Federated Department Stores in Cincinnati and the grand boulevards of many large and small cities, not to mention mass transit innovations such as the trolleys, busses, subways, elevated tracks and rapid rail trains. Developers specializing in dense city high-rise urban buildings continuously innovate, invent better systems of vertical and horizontal people movers and healthier air-conditioning as thousands of people live, and work in dense conditioned space all year long.

In this way, the urban space is a totally synthetic environment, which insists on being tolerant and resilient to a variety of national and ethnic backgrounds, especially people who must adjust out of rural and sub-urban contexts.

What are some of the modern building types?
Some of the urban building types were designed by Le Corbosier’s such as his “Marseille Block” with undeveloped land around the building, not in urban context but on outskirts of downtown Marseille, and Moshe Safte’s “Habitat” in Montreal. This is an example of a synthetic development in a natural urban area. There are resort cities in Germany such as Bad Poi Mont; Baden Baden, which includes infrastructure, surrounded by nature and underground healing baths. Such buildings included residence, schools, recreation, shopping and work places thus circumventing the need for daily use of either mass transit or the automobile.






What affect has the automobile had on urbanity?
Automobile Age
On the other hand, today’s Rome is a nightmare for city planners trying to adopt the city to modern times without destroying or uprooting its precious landmarks.

Traffic is a disaster in cities, which build and grow naturally compounding one bad choice after another and having to work around the givens of yesterdays metaphors, which seem irrelevant and outdated but have value as a record of the culture’s past accomplishments, victories or tragic history.

In all, automobiles are used to accommodate travel from urb to country, urb to sub-urbs, urb to urb and sub-urb to sub-urb.
However, except on heavy traversed paths public transportation and overly wide highways are not feasible unless subsidized by the government or expensive tolls. Recently, while the State of Florida voted to build a mass transit system it later lost the states vote to fund the project.

The manufactures of the automobile and traffic caused by the construction of highways challenged the urban experience. In New York, Robert Moses was deterred by Jane Jacobs not to divide Manhattan into pieces as he had done to the Bronx.
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However, Cities like Manila, Bangkok, Atlanta, and Manhattan still have congestion and time-travel problems. The inexpensive solution is solution is mass transit.
However, most architectural scholars agree that the advent of oil has brought the developed countries an abundant supply of energy to power their electric grids and oversupply every citizen with private vehicles thus making the world dependent on dangerous sources for the supply of oil. Given the original definition of city as being “of the citizen”, you can say that the city the world wants is different from before the invention of the combustion engine and the automobile. The modern concept of the city is the LA model of highways and urban-like destinations. This model has been extended to Texas and extrapolated successfully to cities in Saudi Arabia, Dubai, and Bahrain, miniature versions of these models appear in every area of America, Gulf Arab States and is spreading globally.
While today’s cities have been impacted by banks and business buildings, highway systems, air travel, airports, and mass transit have overwhelmed and swallowed the pedestrian and the freedom once enjoyed by urban dwellers to enter and leave the city while aggressive and creative corporate entrepreneurs employ architects, planners and designers to create and satisfy market expectations, such as William Levitt and Levitt Town and the city father’s of Columbus Ohio, Los Angeles and New Towns such as the Irvine Ranch in California, RESTON and Columbia Maryland by James Rouse. Of course, South West Florida is not immune from the recent investment by major national real estate, financial and banking corporations.
Modern technology brought about by the discovery of abundant oil and electricity has spurned a profusion of automobiles, highways, airplanes, electrification of cities and air-conditioning, not to mention the invention of the elevators, radio, television, and computers to cities.
Cites have been able to be planted and developed away form rail but in proximity to airports such as Reston, Dallas/ Fort Worth, Frankfort, Los Angeles, Seattle, Montreal, Vancouver, and cities in Israel and the mid east as well as many industrial cities in every country and satellite cities in major large metropolitan areas.

What are the local innovative measures to make cities more livable?
Urbanity at a smaller scale in our own area has manifest in Naples, which was originally platted in 1887 as a grid off the Gulf of Mexico and in 1994, Duany was commissioned by the Fifth Ave. chamber to stem the flow of business out of the city. To do this city council formed The Fifth Avenue South Association and The Downtown Naples Association (DNA) has joined forces with The Greater Naples Chamber of Commerce to form one of the strongest, most encompassing visitor centers and local business advocacy organizations in Southwest Florida.
Some of the recent and current urban projects in Naples include the Naples Down Town Redevelopment includes “rezoning downtown”, “2001 Heart of Naples” with a three million dollar bond to build infrastructure and civic design and make parking accessible and plentiful with covered decks, the “Renaissance Village”, “Grand Central Station”, “Renaissance Center”, and the “Four Corners” which is a 100 foot wide pedestrian connector to connect parking to the Renaissance Center.


However, some of the streets merchants recently complain of higher than bearable rents, vacant storefronts and the onslaught of banks and financial organizations to fill the vacancies thereby changing the ambience, romance and street imagery.
Recent Urban Projects in Fort Myers include a redesign of the “River District”, “Eastwood Village”, “Berwyn”, and “Hampton Park” and planned work on blighted areas.

Recent Urban Projects in Lehigh acres include “The Fountains”, a 4700-unit development on 19,000 Acres, and a Mixed Use Homestead Development.

Recent Urban Projects in Fort Myers Beach include the improvement of “Times Square” which includes large commercial and business development. I can also tell you about many administrative, code and ordinances which will eventually lead to the improvement of the health, safety and welfare of the people living in the area.
Are there any urban cluster projects I have forgotten?
Are there any questions so far?

What is a synthetic city and urban enclave?
Synthetic Cities and Urban Enclaves:
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In modern times a synthetic urb is usually formed by a corporate person who synthesis (develops) urban structure(s) by developing property (land or an existing building) which is then populated by strangers, company employees, settlers, migrants, retirees, and merchants, who do not have a hand in the authorship of the place but may be elected to govern and manage the artificial development. Artificial in that it was made without regard to the particular needs of any one-person, but rather an arbitrarily imposed, unnatural, non-specific design that fits all. Because there are no specific potential occupants the development is based on arbitrary, superficial characteristics rather than natural, organic relationships. The program for the design is inherently artificial and imagined and not based on the needs and necessities of owners who commission the design and construction.

How are synthetic cities formed?
It is artificial in that the future occupants were not attracted to migrate to the urb because of jobs, business, or trade that might have resulted from the exploitation and development of any natural resources. New towns, colonies, and company-owned towns plan, build and invited people, anticipating future buyers, markets or tenants. The land is developed to accommodate future population’s potential demand for such developed property. A synthetic development is one where the developer proposes and petitions the community to create the development in the hopes they agree with the developer’s assessment that the development meets or exceeds their future possible needs and city plans.

However, there is an exception when the community initiates and requests the proposal because of its own perceived needs arising from increased population, industrialization, or commercialization it is becomes a natural urban form petitioned by the people. Often a city’s chamber of commerce and municipality may petition private developers and utility companies for hotels, parking garages, public mass transit, power, septic and sewage plants.

These private and publicly held developers artificially synthesize the form and opportunity for the agreements needed to build and operate a city as opposed to when populations settle to exploit natural resources, ports or intersecting trade routes. Corporate developments such those made by Saudi Arabia’s ARAMCO’s Dhahran, Abquiq and Ras Tanura, Brasilia in Brazil, RESTON and Columbia in Maryland are just a few that come to mind.
Cities were not only synthetically formed and natural cities spurned to further growth by the corporate developer but natural cites began to merge and combine into new super municipal corporations. The dynamics of natural cities gave birth to corporate developers when they built synthetic projects in natural cities. For example, when Rockefeller Corp took their idea of corporate building to developing new cities in Latin America and other multi-national corporations built their company towns all over the world. Corporations contribute to the growth of both natural and synthetic corporate developments.

How is a synthetic city different from a natural city?
It is synthetic because it is synthesized and not indigenously formed but manufactured using all separate and non-contextual materials, parts and assemblies except the land upon which the product and its sub products are synthesized. The product combines desperate elements into one form from hitherto unrelated and foreign parts as an automobile or any manufactured product. With this in mind in 1973, Forrest Wilson, then dean of the newly formed College of Architecture at Athens, Ohio University invited me to lecture to the entire university on “Industrial Architecture” where I presented my research on the prefabrications for the 1972 Munich Olympics, the German manufactured home industry and corporate planning systems used by newly emerging real estate developers.

What are the advantages of a Synthetic City?
However, synthetic urbanization does for a citizenry what they supposedly they cannot do for themselves, either because of the system of government, economics, and dramatic inordinate population growth Life, for instance in Florida counties, or catastrophic shrinkage (Cites after a war as Leipzig, Germany) and one other where merchants create a city in the sea as Venice and Rotterdam.

What is missing from a synthetic city?
A city so formed is said not to be so-called real or genuine but something else. It has many things but lacks history, evolution, personalization and indigenous character. Its place, operations, author, corporation, investors, and name brand such as Disney’s “Celebration” and Barron Collier Cos. and Domino's Pizza founder Tom Monaghan’s “Ave Maria”.
In metaphoric terms while the synthetic developer may have fabricated metaphors, poems and songs about the artificial place. The place does not make the strange familiar because it does not tap into any historical, familiar or cultural fact. Being a fabrication and without intrinsic history and a real life it can only allude to a past in the mind of the future occupant or recall a distant time and place. It can be thematic and imaginative but it can only be a copy of a real place that developed naturally.

However perfect may be a man-made synthetic city it will be imperfect because it lacks the imperfections, history, and consensus of the natural city, New Towns, such as RESTON, Virginia provide a government and management organization to operate the development, and HUD requires most PUD and other publicly occupies developments to operate under statutes and ordinances, which require homeowner, tenant and condominium associations. However, and over time these synthetic developments soon develop their own history and metaphors, which are then made part of the culture.
However, with all of these regulating mechanisms it is like a robot without a cold, headache or attitude; furthermore, it is predictable and regimented. Like a book, movie or play you’ve seen a hundred times. It is possibly boring and uninteresting.

While many today find Venice wonderful there are many who find it unlike other Italian cities because Venice has become lifeless and lacking normal Italian culture (It is a museum of great architecture and engineering artistry).
Can you think of any such places?


Why are we attracted to synthetic places?
The attraction to Synthetic Places
Future inhabitants are not attracted by an economic opportunity but the life –style and recreation promised at the New York City World’s Fair; “Building the world of Tomorrow” in 1939/1940. Like a car or any other product developed by a composition its consensus comes from market and feasibility studies and ability to penetrate and operate within the market place and convince buyers of the value of the uniformity, reliability and profitability of the product. It has turned most homeowners from a mere citizen into a business man hoping to someday recover profit from the sale of a product, his home, a home whose marketability is based on international cosmopolitan and recognizable values. In some ways, it has some the appeal of a science fiction context designed to present a world without history, family and the abnormalities and trivia of real life pursuits. It is an escape and synaptic solution to arguing about zoning, building permits, budgets, limits of natural resources and limited ability for society to grow and adopt. In one swoop the synthetic urban form solves all threw problems and presents a new tomorrow.

Synthetic cities are cities initially designed and controlled by a central and organized authority with a specific social, business and philosophical goal such as “Broad more”, “Arsenate”, and Green belt circular city, where design and form are dominate determinate.

Synthetic Cities are artificially manufactured and not made by a series of natural circumstances, as Vincent Scully once pointed out American cities are often created and changed “cataclysmically”.
In 2004, Scully said about his role in “Modernism”:
“ I was a confirmed Modernist………………………..I think we were very wrong. We had very cataclysmic and simplistic ideas about city planning, for example.

We really didn't have any respect for the traditional fabric of our cities, which is a miraculous development over centuries of time, much more important architecturally than the development of anything having to do with individual houses. Just the street, the curb, the grass strip, the trees, the sidewalks -- this is a marvelous urbanistic structure. What I learned as time went on was that Modernism was very faulty, in view of what architecture was. That it was a simplistic view of architecture. It was predicated on an arbitrary aesthetic. It was totalitarian in its mode of thinking. Everybody had to do things one way”.

What have Synthetic cities Have I been involved?
I have been involved in the design and construction of a few synthetic urbs such as Housatanic Horizons in Connecticut’s Lake as well as Shopping centers at highway interchanges, subdivision designs, Planned Unit Developments, new towns for the Gulf Oil Corporation such as Reston, Virginia, and for People’s Protective, Sugar Tree and English Mountain in Tennessee and many towns and villages in Saudi Arabia for ARAMCO, Yanbu and Jubail Royal commission and Internal Security Forces. In fact, I supervised the design of eleven such housing projects in eleven different municipalities and one Sports Park in Saudi Arabia.

What are the ways institutions have tackled urbanization and how effective are such institutions and their recommendations?
Movements, Associations, and institutions concerned with urbanism
As I said before synthetic urb is a product of a corporate systematic production process best suited for controlled environment of a factory but when overlaid on a existing inhabited area becomes a matter of building in what is industrially called “simultaneous operations”, manufacturing new while the old continues production.

What are the efforts to argue for the redistribution of federal and State’s budgets in favor of urban renewal?
Rockefeller Commission Report and Metropolitan Areas
In March 27, 1972 and long before the latest corporate global urban industry, about National Population Distribution and Migration Policies the Rockefeller commission report found that the percent of the population living in large places was rising, with much of this shift is due to natural increase. Furthermore, the average densities of urbanized areas are declining, not rising.

The appropriate scale at which to grasp emerging settlement patterns includes the metropolitan area, but goes beyond it to the urban region—a constellation of urban centers dispersing outward.
Basically, the urban region is an adaptation of adjacent urban centers to underlying economic change and to most Americans’ desire for dispersed suburban living. The easy communication among urban places in urban regions permits the smaller metropolitan areas to benefit from the economic advantages of agglomeration, while avoiding some of the penalties of excessive size and density.

How can the source of budgets to be used for urban renewal be increased?
The answer was the metropolitan area I explained earlier.
The Rockefeller commission report noted that the increased complexity and scale made the continued fragmentary approaches to metropolitan planning and development progressively more costly and wasteful. This suggested that the basic responsibilities for planning settlement patterns, new public facilities, and public services should be at the metropolitan level.

To encourage this comprehensive approach and local cooperation, the major portion of federal funds to support planning activities in metropolitan areas should go to the appropriate multi-purpose area-wide planning agency. These agencies, in turn, can support planning efforts for individual jurisdictions within the metropolitan area. A great example of a comprehensive approach is the Urban Development Corporation (UDC) UDC was formulated in New York city to combine the best of government with the private sector to cut through red tape and renew the urban cores. It worked and mid-town Manhattan became a beautiful and safe place to invest and live.

In addition to better and more active planning at the state level, state development agencies may be desirable to implement development plans on a broad geographical basis. To function effectively in such a role, these agencies must have broad powers to acquire land, to override local ordinances, and actually to carry out development plans.
While the need for such organizations is gradually being recognized, only New York State has actually established one.

In its first years of operation, the Urban Development Corporation showed that it could be an effective mechanism, particularly for improving housing opportunities for low- and moderate-income families. It is also committed to actively promoting orderly urban development and is currently involved in the development of several new communities throughout the state.
The early success of the Urban Development Corporation, and its promise for effectively guiding orderly urban development, suggests that it would be a good model for other states.

I recently pointed this out to an American Institute of Architect’s panel discussion on urban design tackling ways breaking down the barriers of special and competing interests. It was apparent that while the panel raised many important points their empirical experience and knowledge was very limited. This problem is likewise shared by many elected and appointed surrogates of the people charged with major responsibility in either natural or synthetic urbanization. Many of who have contributed to sprawl with granting and supporting government subsidies for infrastructure, which have disguised the true cost of sprawl. Examples include subsidies for highway building, fossil fuels, and electricity.

The Rockefeller commission report came forty years after the formation of the Urban Land Institute (ULI), which was formed "to provide leadership in the responsible use of land and in creating and sustaining thriving communities worldwide,” not only nationally, but world wide. ULI advocates progressive development, covering topics such as sustainability, smart growth, compact development, place making, and workforce housing. Industrialists have long been faced with the need to both house and grow labor force communities and to invest in secure real property for long term corporate value.

As the guest of a Saudi real estate development family I attended one of its’ meetings in New Orleans and in 1976,I became active in the National Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives (NACORE) as I dealt with the Gulf Oil’s urban properties. It was during this time that these corporations and organizations were tooling-up to nationalize and globalize urban land development as a business and industry to the extent that when oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere such companies were already prepared to design and build community compounds to house foreign workers.

They became very experienced in building everything where nothing before existed, in other words to synthesize a community. With this latent experience, they could easily plan and develop other development products as a stand-alone profit center. And so the corporate development companies evolved and separated as real estate development corporate businesses and universities offered graduate degrees in the administration property development.
Using the example of these institutions what are some of the principles of the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism at work?

What are the basic principles of culture of cosmopolitan urbanism?
1. Civic Pride and vision
2. Vested interest and ownership
3. Long range investment and planning
4. Improved property and value of context in which to live and do business.
5. Initiative and responsibility to life changing principles

What are some of the social initiatives to facilitate urbanism?
While many would argue against government control, there are others that see government’s duty to control urbanization as a board of directors controls its corporate assets.

Principles of Intelligent Urbanism (PIU) is one of many systems of theories to guide urban planning originated by architect Louis Sert at Harvard and is composed by of a set of ten axioms for the formulation of city plans and urban designs. They are intended to reconcile and integrate diverse urban planning and management concerns.

In my book published by John Wiley and sons, I too defined policies and procedures for the proposals, programming, design and construction of buildings and support facilities.
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Principles of Intelligent Urbanism (PIU) hopefully represents the will of the people in the hands of their elected official s as they set about to be the arbiters between the developers and the people, however, created these. Architects predate so-called “planners” by thousands of years so to deal with overpopulation and extreme demand, systems like PIU has been created.

They are not only followed by corporate developers but also used to win variances for new development order approvals in areas where land prices are below market and a profit can be made.

Replete with metaphors, these PIU axioms include:
1. Environmental sustainability,
2. Heritage conservation,
3. Appropriate technology,
4. Infrastructure efficiency,
5. Place making,
6. Social access,
7. Transit oriented development,
8. Regional integration,
9. Human scale, and,
10. Institutional integrity


American Institute of Architects Blueprint for America
is to engage architects and community leaders in a discussion about the future of their town, city and region. The different strategies for SW Florida include
1. New Town Planning
2. Community Master Planning
3. Downtown redevelopment
4. River district Plan
5. Fort Myers beach Times Square project
6. Rural Land Plan

A.I.A. eight essential elements to make livable communities are
1. A sense of place
2. Mixed-Use Development
3. Density
4. Effective Planning for Regional Transportation
5. Street-Savvy Design
6. Physical Health and Community Design
7. Public Safety, Personal; Security
8. A Sustainable Approach to Neighborhood and Regional Development.

What is one of the more popular political initiatives facilitating urbanization?
Smart Growth:
Not only has smart growth been institutionalized but also it has been legislated by many state governments.
Because of its attractive weather, comparatively lower land cost and fewer commercial or governmental impediments to planning and land development, Florida is one of several “growth states” taking up the expansion of population and drive of the so-called baby boomers to utilize their affluence and mobility.

Smart Growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in the center of a city to avoid urban sprawl; and advocates compact, transit-oriented, walk able, bicycle-friendly land use, including mixed-use development with a range of housing choices.




Long before former, vice-prescient Al Gore first promulgated smart growth; transportation and community planners began to promote the idea of compact cities and communities in the early 1970s. The cost and difficulty of acquiring land (particularly in historic and/or areas designated as conservancies) to build and widen highways caused some politicians to reconsider basing transportation planning on motor vehicles.

One wonders about the political implications of urbanism between conservative and liberal, redistribution of population and wealth, socialism verses capitalism, political parties and persons vying for power and control.
Encouraging growth, smart or otherwise, builds political continuants deciding whether to facilitate urbanism in natural existing or create new cities on developed land.
Does anyone have any thoughts about the politics of urbanism?
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What other countries have initiated urbanization programs?
Architect Peter Calthorpe promoted and popularized the idea of urban villages that relied on public transportation, bicycling, and walking instead of automobile use. Colin Buchanan and Stephen Plowden helped to lead the debate in the United Kingdom.

However, to offset these advantages the market has recently found that weather, fishing, boating and golf were not enough and the need for the big-city metaphoric cultural institutions and amenities were needed. Hence, a recent market has developed thematic urban clusters featuring theatres, entertainment and recreation normally associated with large urban centers. Urbanization and urban design has become a major professional industry on a global scale. On a mega scale the way Tokyo, Shanghai, Beijing, Minneapolis, and others emulate other natural cities.

Smart Growth values long-range, regional considerations of sustainability over a short-term focus.

Its goals are to achieve a unique sense of community and place; expand the range of transportation, employment and housing choices; equitably distribute the costs and benefits of development; preserve and enhance natural and cultural resources; and promote public health.

In general, smart growth invests time, attention, and resources in restoring community and vitality to center cities and older suburbs. New smart growth is more town-centered, is transit and pedestrian oriented, and has a greater mix of housing, commercial and retail uses. It also preserves open space and many other environmental amenities.

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What has been the design professions response?
Enter André’s Duany and his wife Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. In 1949, Duany was born in New York City (my fair city), but grew up in Cuba where he lived until 1960.

Duany received his undergraduate degree in architecture and urban planning from Princeton University, and after a year of study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, and as I, received a master's degree in architecture from the Yale School of Architecture.

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk has been dean of the University of Miami School of Architecture since 1995; Plater-Zyberk began teaching at the University of Miami School of Architecture in 1979 and created a graduate program in Suburb and Town Design in 1988. Duany and Plater-Zyberk (DPZ) founded Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company in 1980 and both are now headquartered in Miami, Florida

DPZ became another initiative to stem sprawl and attract density into established developed areas and a leader in the national movement called the “New Urbanism”.
New Urbanism seeks to end suburban sprawl and urban disinvestments and DPZ have been involved in the Fifth Ave project in Naples, Down Town Fort Myers, West Palm Beach, Stuart, Amelia Park, Sarasota, coconut grove, and Tampa to only name a few.

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What are the principles of Smart Growth and do they coincide with the
“Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” ?
The Principles of Smart Growth are:
• Create Range of Housing Opportunities and Choices
• Create Walk able Neighborhoods
• Encourage Community and Stakeholder Collaboration
• Foster Distinctive, Attractive Communities with a Strong Sense of Place
• Make Development Decisions Predictable, Fair and Cost Effective
• Mix Land Uses
• Preserve Open Space, Farmland, Natural Beauty and Critical Environmental Areas
• Provide a Variety of Transportation Choices
• Strengthen and Direct Development towards Existing Communities and
• Take Advantage of Compact Building Design

As you can see, the “Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” picks up where smart growth ends, Smart growth deals with the physical while the Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” deals with the social.

What are the basic principles of the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism?
1 Civic Pride and vision: yes as smart growth encourages community and stakeholder collaboration
2 Vested interest and ownership
3 Long-range investments and planning
4 Improved property and value of context in which to live and do business.
5 Initiative and responsibility to life changing principles.

However, without one with out the other it is incomplete and may be why there is relatively little public support for smart growth.
Confirming the observations of the Rockefeller report there is the metaphoric issue of property rights and the right to live in low density.
This flies in the face of the non-sprawl and economic solutions of condominiums and cooperatives that share tax and maintenance costs?

In The Politics of "Smart Growth" by C. Kenneth Orski, he says, “Most observers believe that Smart Growth and the campaign for livability will remain largely symbolic gestures.
As one local elected official remarked, "the broad public does not regard scattered development as undesirable.



Vice President Gore's rhetoric notwithstanding, the average American associates quality of life and livability with low rather than high residential density,” a point of view that was long ago promulgated by Frank Lloyd Wright and confirmed by the way the absorption rate of synthetic developments in every state in the union save those in no-growth communities.

About urbanism, what else is on the mind of the consuming public and political constituents?
In his book titled Smart Growth Fraud, Michael S. Coffman of the “American Land Foundation” he says that “for decades urban planners have adhered to the mantra that urban sprawl increases pollution and housing costs, more driving time to work and shopping, stress, and the escalating consumption of scarce farmland and open space. Al Gore’s Smart growth was created to supposedly correct these problems and create more livable and inexpensive homes for all.
Irrefutable evidence, however, shows that urban planning creates the very nightmares it is supposed to eliminate.
In the process, it strips urbanites of one of their most fundamental civil liberties — property rights." Witness inner massive inner city housing projects, which became the home to pimps and drug dealers.

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Are there urban contexts, which have solved some of these problems?
It should be noted that in large, medium and small cities there are multiple housing types and single and two family houses. There is also very large single family owned apartments as coops and condominiums in well-kept, convenient and safe neighborhoods. There are neighborhoods in Columbus, Kansas, Manhattan and so many others with large single-family houses. Large urban cities need not have only one or another building type.

In Lee County, we have Smart Growth and Community planning districts to update the Comprehensive Five Year Plan and the City of Fort Myers has already begun re-planning its downtown using these very principles involving local architects and planners.



What other methods have corporate developers found to persuade counties to grant variances and surrender the use of their undeveloped lands?
Rural Land System=RLS
Another such movement, associations, and institutions concerned with urbanism is Rural Land System=RLS
At a conference of university’s presidents the Ave Maria president told a gathering of guests of the Southwest Florida Chamber of Commerce that Ave Maria was a product of the RLS where a private large corporate developer invited Ave Maria, so as to meet some of the RLS objectives.
Earlier, I learned from Lee County planners that this scheme ultimately preempted some of Lee County’s wetlands and watershed. Like the Babcock Ranch developers and others who studied the current urban requirements, the developers were able to argue and win variances from local officials. The engineering firm of Wilson Miller developed RLS and the Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council approved the project.

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In addition, these projects also include a percentage of so-called “affordable” housing of which Lee County Commissioner John Albion was worried that what will be labeled affordable housing won't be affordable for long. Buyers might purchase a home at an affordable price, but could turn around and sell it for much more, which would make affordable housing almost impossible to find in Ave Maria.
He compared the project with Florida Gulf Coast University.

He said people working the lower-paying jobs at the university no longer could afford to live in the area because they can't afford the homes. He recommended the county and Ave Maria work to create a plan that would keep affordable housing affordable.

Here are some of the numbers: in Ave Maria the cost of a single-family home likely will range from $195,000 to $500,000; multi-family homes, such as condominiums, likely will range from $125,000 to $300,000; and rental properties likely will range from $650 to $1,400 a month and have 200 very low-income units. Ave Maria officials also have said they plan to donate a 28-acre site within 10 miles of the town of Ave Maria to Habitat for Humanity of Collier County.
Habitat will build 150 owner-occupied affordable housing units. Cost of so-called affordable housing is usually over $150,000.
Ave Maria at a glance
• Ave Maria will cover 4,995 acres.
• Ave Maria University is expected to serve 6,000 students. There are now an estimated 300 at the interim campus in the Vineyards in North Naples. The town will include:
• 11,000 residential units
• 690,000 square feet of retail space
• 510,000 square feet of office space
• 35,000 square feet of medical office space
• 148,500 square feet of civic/community and miscellaneous facilities
• 400 hotel rooms
• 1,800 acres of parks, lakes and open space
• An oratory, and
• A private school for grades K-12 and a public high school that will be located off-site.
Have any visited Ave Maria, and what do you think of the project?

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What are some the man-made organizing design elements of the urban city?
The great Boulevards of the World
Of course, Ave Maria will have a huge church and a great boulevard. Cites are composed of specific great boulevards, avenues and plazas. Many developments such as Ave Maria base their plans and designs on famous prototypes.

For example, the Champs-Élysées is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. Its full name is actually "Avenue des Champs-Élysées". With its cinemas, cafés, and luxury specialty shops, the Champs-Élysées is one of the most famous streets in the world, and with rents as high as $1.25 million a year for 1,000 square feet of space, it remains the 2nd most expensive strip of real estate in the world (the first in Europe) after New York City's Fifth Avenue.] The name refers to the Elysian Fields, the place of the blessed in Greek mythology. I always call it the road to paradise. Its wide sidewalks allow one to stride amidst hoards of people while others may meander or even stop at windows or converse. It is exhilarating and uplifting.

I have often gone and walked alone on its entire length. I recall one July 14, Bastille day riding down the Champs-Élysées in a 1911 open convertible with other young boys shooting off guns and singing. Our ride went around the Arch d’Triumph and terminated into the seine where we emerged to the ramparts while the vehicle sank into the deep.

Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the center of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Lined with expensive park-view real estate and historical mansions, it is a symbol of wealthy New York. Between Thirty-fourth and Fifty-ninth streets, it is also one of the premier shopping streets in the world, on par with Oxford Street in London and the Champs-Élysées in Paris.

It is one of the most expensive streets in the world, on a par with Paris, London, and Tokyo lease prices: the "most expensive street in the world" moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year.

Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in London, England in the City of Westminster. With over 300 shops, it is Europe's largest shopping street.
Bahnhofstrasse, Zurich is one of the world's most expensive and exclusive shopping avenues.

The Kurfürstendamm, known locally as the Ku'damm, is one of the most famous avenues in Berlin, Germany. The street takes its name from the former Kurfürsten (Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire. This very broad, long boulevard can be considered the Champs-Élysées of Berlin - full of shops, houses, hotels and restaurants. In particular, most important famous designers have their shops there like Gucci, Bvlgari, Chanel, Louis Vuitton, Valentino, Lacoste, Tommy Hilfiger, Cartier, Hermès, Swarovski, as well as several car manufacturers' show rooms.
Boston’s Quincy Market.

Today, "festival markets" are a dime a dozen - every city, it seems, has a collection of old brick buildings turned into chic little stores and endless restaurants.



But the one that blazed the path was Boston's Quincy Market. Back in the mid-1960s, James Rouse, then a city planner, had a revolutionary idea: instead of abandoning downtown to decay, why not build a fun marketplace that would not only attract tourists, but also keep workers downtown after dark.

Munich’s Marienplatz, (Mary's Square in English), is a central plaza in the city center of Munich, Germany since 1158. In the Middle Ages, markets and tournaments were held in this city square. The new city hall’s Glockenspiel was inspired by these tournaments and draws millions of tourists a year.

Bull fight arenas in Spain and particularly in Madrid where I sold bullfight tickets to tourist and in Pamplona where during the festival of San Fermin I ran with the bulls through the streets.
Arenas are great social gathering places where wine is squeezed out of leather sacks and the crowed cheer for their cities urban hero, the toreador that Bisset made famous in Carmen. We saw it performed in Paris long after it premiered at the Opéra Comique 1875. The Opéra-Comique is an opera company and opera house in Paris.
These operas, ballets, and operettas as well their buildings, costumes, orchestras and players all celebrate, exaggerate and explain urban life and the plight of city life. For America, that music is jazz country, rock, and Dixie-land.

Southern Boulevard: Not to be outdone, the neighborhood in which I grew up in the Bronx had an 800 foot double block-long super wide boulevard with three movie theatres, on having a stage show, two Chinese restaurants, one huge ballroom dance hall, two music shops with speakers facing the street playing the latest, every clothing, candy and decorating shop and three five and ten cent stores including Kresgee, Kress and Woolworth’s. I even worked in one shop for many years and at night; our family would ambulate from one side and then the other usually having a “mello-role’ before going walking around the corner to our Simpson Street ground floor tenement apartment. I can name others such Ocean Parkway in Brooklyn, Fordham Road and the Grand Concourse in the Bronx.
Can you name and describe a great boulevard in your city?

The study of urbanism must include the great urban monuments including Boulevards, Avenues, Areas, and Plazas of the World including:
• Plaza d’ Concorde in Paris
• Piazza Novanna in Rome
• Columbus circle in Manhattan
• Arch d’ Triumph in Paris
• Washington Square in Manhattan
• St Stephan in Vienna
• Los Ramblas in Barcelona
• Parco Güell by Gaudi in Barcelona
• South Beach in Miami
• Roman forum
• Venice’ San Marco Square and the Campanile
• Red Square
• China’s Tieneman Square
• Times Square in Manhattan
• Broadway
• Fulton fish Market in Lower Manhattan
• Staten Island Ferry
• Statue of Liberty
• Tamiami Trail and thousands of other strip roads in the United States of America
• The Las Vegas Strip
And, American Shopping Malls, including the Galleria in Houston, which was built by Gerald Hines to be an air-conditioned version of the Milan, Italy original. Mr. Hines started out selling air conditioners in Texas.

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What are the natural design features around which cities may be planned?
Cites are famous for there rivers and urban architecture on the river
• San Antonio and it s River Walk
• San Francisco’ Golden Gate bridge and environs
• Seine in Paris
• Florence and Rome and the Arno
• Rhine
• Germany’s Ruhrgebit common to Dortmund, Düsseldorf and Duisenberg
• Venice, its canals, the famous San Marco Square, and the Campanile. (See Barie’s pen and ink)
Great Urban Buildings of the World include
• White House
• Taj Mihal
• Notre Dame
• Buckingham Palace
• St. Peter’s
• Dead Seas Scrolls in Israel
• Kabba in Mecca
• Eiffel Tower
• Empire State Building
• World Trade Center
• City forms radial: 2 Dimensional
In summary, aside from the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism what are some of all the movements, initiatives and legislations?

1. Rockefeller commission 2. Urban Development Corporation
3. Urban Land Institute 4. Principles of Intelligent Urbanism
5 Smart Growth and 6. Rural Land system

Is there one umbrella strategy to which many on both sides of the debate agree and can proceed?
Yes, and its called the New Urbanist!
As I mentioned earlier “Urbanist” are specialist in the study and planning of cities and “New Urbanism” is an urban design movement that burst onto the scene in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It tries to bring urban values into new construction.

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New Urbanist aim to reform all aspects of real estate development and their work affects regional and local plans. They are involved in new development, urban retrofits, and suburban infill. In all cases, New Urbanist neighborhoods are walk able, and contain a diverse range of housing and jobs.
New Urbanist support regional planning for open space, appropriate architecture and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. In a goal-oriented society these seem to very appropriate and compatible with the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism.
By the way, I got most of the Information about New Urbanism from Internet and the “New Urbanism” and “Duany” web sites.
They believe these strategies are the best way to reduce how long people spend in traffic, to increase the supply of affordable housing, and to rein in urban sprawl.

Many other issues, such as historic restoration, safe streets, and green building are also covered in the Charter of the New Urbanism, the movement's seminal document.

They stand for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy.

They recognize that physical solutions by themselves will not solve social and economic problems, but neither can economic vitality, community stability, and environmental health be sustained without a coherent and supportive physical framework.

They advocate the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the following principles: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice.


They represent a broad-based citizenry, composed of public and private sector leaders, community activists, and multidisciplinary professionals. They are committed to reestablishing the relationship between the art of building and the making of community, through citizen-based participatory planning and design.

And, they are dedicated to reclaiming their homes, blocks, streets, parks, neighborhoods, districts, towns, cities, regions, and environment.

Robert Steuteville Writes: “In The New Urbanism:
An alternative to modern, automobile-oriented planning and development that after World War II, a new system of development was implemented nationwide, replacing neighborhoods with a rigorous separation of uses that has become known as Conventional Suburban Development (CSD), or sprawl. The majority of US citizens now live in suburban communities built in the last 50 years.

The New Urbanism is a reaction to sprawl. A growing movement of architects, planners, and developers, the New Urbanism is based on principles of planning and architecture that work together to create human-scale, walk able communities. New Urbanist take a wide variety of approaches — some work exclusively on infill projects, others focus on transit-oriented development, still others are attempting to transform the suburbs, and many are working in all of these categories. The New Urbanism includes traditional architects and those with modernist sensibilities.
All, however, believe in the power and ability of traditional neighborhoods to restore functional, sustainable communities.

What are some of the strategies adopted by New Urbanism?
Just as Starbucks raised the quality of coffee in competing restaurants and cafes, mainstream developers are adopting new urban design elements such as garages in the rear of houses, neighborhood greens and mixed-use town centers. Projects that adopt some principles of New Urbanism but remain largely conventional in design are known as hybrids.

The New Urbanism trend goes by other names, including nontraditional design, transit-oriented development, and traditional neighborhood development.
Borrowing from urban design concepts throughout history, the New Urbanism does not merely replicate old communities. They apply the principles but practice suburbanization with developer interests to build on low priced land. It is the reason I have given you some specific urban examples and will continue to do so in lectures. It is in this way that New Urbanism is eclectic and often found guilty of fostering banal design solutions when in fact they are simply building contemporary metaphors.

The very fact that new Urbanist must meet the demands of the marketplace keeps them grounded in reality. Successful New Urbanism performs a difficult balancing act by maintaining the integrity of a walk able, human-scale neighborhood while offering modern residential and commercial “product” to compete with CSD.

New Urbanist who cannot compete with conventional development or find a niche that is poorly served by the real estate industry is doomed to failure. The new Urbanist is a pragmatist overwhelmed by the advent of land developers, super highways and utility networks.

The difficulty of that balancing act is one reason why many developers choose to build hybrids, instead of adopting all of the principles of the New Urbanism. Such a compost as a hybrid has usually enough uniqueness as to provide proponents applying for a development order with so many un-chartered elements as to warrant a variance away from the government’s original city plan.
Like my experience with Gulf Oil, it was the lawyers and the accounts that came up with most of the investment strategies and goals the board ultimately considered and approved.

Some new Urbanist thinks that hybrids pose a serious threat to the movement, because they usually borrow the label and language of the New Urbanism. Other new Urbanist believes that hybrids represent a positive step forward from CSD. Unfortunately, the architecture of space, human scale and quality of life has lost out to legalism, and the power of the law and economic benefits.
The new Urbanist has used computer technology to superimpose urban vocabulary, meaning and realities of infrastructure and hierarchies onto the highways, houses built on lots, vast connectors, and commercial centers. The result continues the lack of urban cities and affordable communities where independent and freethinking arts and intellect can grow and prosper. The New Urbanist is unwittingly promulgating the same choices made by their recent ancestors in the fifties for a controlled and managed life and the context to support that life style,
Vis-à-vis freedom of choice, democracy and quality of life what is your opinion of hybrids?




What are the elements and importance of New Urbanism?
Principles of the New Urbanism are an attempt by non-architects and creative persons to translate the spirit and intellect of the architect into formulas and recipes. They have made into clichés the hard work of the mind and spirit of urban architects and city planners.

They extrapolate and digest to legal terms what has taken place over the centuries in order to provide real estate developers with “smart growth plans politically correct vocabulary and legal stature to win the hearts and souls of the controlled and managed town counsels. Many talented people employed by corporate developers challenge county commissioners and local judges and judicial systems.
It makes being an informed citizen and selecting elected officials even more important. Practicing professionals need the support and confidence of constituents and the beneficiaries of the work of the developers and the government.
On the technical and physical side, like the Romans who created The Five Noble Orders of Architecture, Michelangelo’s treatise on scale, Ramsey Sleeper “Time Saver Standards” and John Wiley and Sons “Architectural Graphic Standards” the heart of the New Urbanism is in the design of neighborhoods, which can be defined by 13 elements, according to town planners Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, two of the founders of the Congress for the New Urbanism.
An authentic neighborhood contains most of these elements:
(Both are the planners of Fifth Ave in Naples and the new Fort Myers downtown areas)
1) the neighborhood has a discernible center. This is often a square or a green and sometimes a busy or memorable street corner. A transit stop would be located at this center.

2) Most of the dwellings are within a five-minute walk of the center, an average of roughly 2,000 feet.

3) There are a variety of dwelling types — usually houses, row houses and apartments — so that younger and older people, singles and families, the poor and the wealthy may find places to live.

4) At the edge of the neighborhood, there are shops and offices of sufficiently varied types to supply the weekly needs of a household.
5) A small ancillary building is permitted within the backyard of each house. It may be used as a rental unit or place to work (e.g., office or craft workshop).

6) An elementary school is close enough so that most children can walk from their home.

7) There are small playgrounds accessible to every dwelling -- not more than a tenth of a mile away.

8) Streets within the neighborhood form a connected network, which disperses traffic by providing a variety of pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination.

9) The streets are relatively narrow and shaded by rows of trees. This slows traffic, creating an environment suitable for pedestrians and bicycles.

10) Buildings in the neighborhood center are placed close to the street, creating a well-defined outdoor room.

11) Parking lots and garage doors rarely front the street. Parking is relegated to the rear of buildings, usually accessed by alleys.

12) Certain prominent sites at the termination of street vistas or in the neighborhood center are reserved for civic buildings. These provide sites.
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What are some projects that would agree with the New Urbanist?
To bring this all home let me give you a few examples of typical New Urbanist-type projects
• For example, in June of 1996, Disney unveiled its 5,000-acre town of Celebration, near Orlando, Florida, and it has since eclipsed Seaside as the best-known new Urbanist community. In some respects, the New Urbanism and Disney have been uncomfortable bedfellows. While using designers and principles closely associated with the New Urbanism, Disney has shunned the label, preferring to call Celebration simply a “town”.


• Seaside, Florida, by DPZ was the first new Urbanist town, began development in 1981 on 80 acres of Panhandle coastline.
Seaside appeared on the cover of the Atlantic Monthly in 1988 when only a few streets were completed, and it since became internationally famous for its architecture and the quality of its streets and public spaces. Seaside proved that developments that function like traditional towns could be built in the postmodern era. Lots began selling for $15,000 in the early 1980s and, slightly over a decade later, lots prices had escalated to about $200,000. Today, some lots sell for close to a million dollars and houses sometimes-top $3 million. The town is now a tourist Mecca.

Seaside’s influence has less to do with its economic success than a certain magic and dynamism related to its physical form. Many developers have visited Seaside and gone away determined to build something similar.

• Not officially named as a New Urbanist project is La Défense in Paris business district is one of the largest business districts in the world is the design of the Danish architect Otto van Spreckelsen looks more like a cube-shaped building than a triumphal arch. It is a 110-meter tall white building with the middle part left open. The sides of the cube contain offices. It is possible to take a lift to the top of the Grande Arch; it is as spectacular as a view from the Empire State Building, Eiffel towel or the former World Trade Center. You can see a reduced in scale vast panorama the city below; roof tops, streets and buildings. Like a view from the peaks of the Alps or the Rockies. My very first building designs were of New York City skyscrapers.

Few pre-New Urbanist synthetic cities:
• Brasilia, a capital created ex nihilo (Ex nihilo is a Latin term meaning "out of nothing") in the center of the country in 1956, was a landmark in the history of town planning. The site chosen for Brasilia is located in the Federal District and comprises 2,245 sq. miles (5,814 sq. km) of a sparsely inhabited plateau carved out of the State of Goias, 3,609 feet (1,100 meters) above sea level and 746 miles (1,200 km) from Rio de Janeiro. Brazilian architect and urban planner, Lucio Costa, won the competition for the urban master plan and the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer designed the major government buildings.
On April 21, 1960, Brasilia was officially inaugurated to function as the new capital of Brazil.

• Washington, DC designed whom L'Enfant was born at the Gobelins, Paris; He studied at the Royal Academy in the Louvre before enrolling to fight in the American Revolution. Following the war, L'Enfant established a successful and highly profitable civil engineering firm in New York City.

He achieved some fame as an architect by redesigning Federal Hall. In 1791, L'Enfant was appointed by President George Washington to design a new federal capital city under the supervision of three commissioners that Washington had appointed to oversee the planning and development of the 10 mile square of federal territory that would later become the District of Columbia.

• Garden Cities Of Tomorrow by Ebenezer Howard which is to be built near the center of the 6,000 acres, covers an area of 1,000 acres, or a sixth part of the 6,000 acres, and might be of circular form, 1,240 yards (or nearly three-quarters of a mile) from center to circumference.

• Freetown, a city that was new in the 18th century but that was not, paradoxically, a creation ex nihilo. (Ex nihilo is a Latin term meaning "out of nothing”) The capital of the first African colony in the modern sense of the term, a municipality at the end of the 19th century, and today a "capital of pain," Freetown has since its foundation crystallized all the beauties and contradictions of the Sierra Leonian settlement project.
As long as the concept of the city (whose original models were the Greek polis and the Roman urbs) had been intrinsically linked to the concept of civilization, and the concept of civilization considered synonymous with the West, both the ideas of an "African civilization" and an "African city" were seen as inadmissible. Freetown was the exception.

• New-Every town of The Shape of Things to Come by HG Wells, and many other images and designs by futurists, visionaries, science fiction writers and movie producers.
New Urbanist have planned and developed hundreds of projects in infill locations. Most were driven by the private sector, but many, including HUD projects, used public money.
What are some of the New Urbanist urban clusters?
New Urbanist projects built in historic cities and towns includes:
• Crawford Square in Pittsburgh;
• City Place in West Palm Beach;
• Highlands Garden Village in Denver,
• Park Du Valle in Louisville, and
• Beerline in Milwaukee.
• Times Square in Fort Myers Beach
• Down Town Naples
• Munich Subway and CBD street closing of the Marc Stresses
• Vienna St. Stephen Platz
In the mid-1990s, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) adopted the principles of the New Urbanism in its multibillion-dollar program to rebuild public housing projects nationwide.

My first project for Gulf Oil Corporation was RESTON, Virginia. Its competitor was James Rouse’s Columbia Maryland followed by the Irvine Ranch in California. I later was director of Architecture for Peoples Protective, which developed Sugar Tree and English Mountain in Tennessee; Sugar Tree is now an incorporated with a city form of government. However ambitious were these they are dwarfed by these more recent projects. The Gulf Company I worked for was formed to control the multi-billion dollar portfolio of all of Gulf Oil Corporation’s worldwide real estate assets. In addition to managing the financial and operational aspects of its many properties it also offered its services to all the gulf companies, which is where I provided all sorts of consulting services.

At the time, Gulf Oil owned several large developments including Florida’s Hutchinson Island, off of Port St. Lucie. At the time, it was wilderness a gulf Oil paid three times the appraised value of the property. It was the job of our group to consolidate trade and divest itself of unprofitable assets. Profits in the oil business were measured in hundreds of percent while in real estate business about twenty percent was considered acceptable. The Gulf board looked upon the collective sum of all these assets as a drop in the bucket compared to its profit making oil assets and there fore it set policies that held the development and operation of any of there properties with least priority.

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Unlike many corporations, whose major business is real estate such as Dell Web, Hines, Trammel Crow, Hometown America, Sexton, Marriott, Horne and hundreds of others would propose projects for us to consider investing.

What is the New Urbanist’ Mission Statement?
I hope we can see our own potential culture of cosmopolitan urbanism in their principles and mission statement. Perhaps they can be our own.
As I said in my opening remarks the study of urbanism and civilization is inextricably tied together. As a metaphor, we are what we build and if we are civilized, we will build a way to live and work to make our habitations more livable. As we uncover ancient cities we learn how they were able to translate their version of living civilly in an n urban form. Can we today look at ourselves and be proud of our civilization of time of life?

The New Urbanist Mission Statement says that “ The Congress for the New Urbanism views disinvestments in central cities, the spread of placeless sprawl, increasing separation by race and income, environmental deterioration, loss of agricultural lands and wilderness, and the erosion of society's built heritage as one interrelated community-building challenge.
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We stand for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy.

We recognize that physical solutions by themselves will not solve social and economic problems, but neither can economic vitality, community stability, and environmental health be sustained without a coherent and supportive physical framework.






We advocate the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the following principles: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice.

We represent a broad-based citizenry, composed of public and private sector leaders, community activists, and multidisciplinary professionals. We are committed to reestablishing the relationship between the art of building and the making of community, through citizen-based participatory planning and design.

We dedicate ourselves to reclaiming our homes, blocks, streets, parks, neighborhoods, districts, towns, cities, regions, and environment.

Today, I described how the “Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” describes our cosmopolitan and urban abilities to agree, disagree, peruse common goals, tolerate stress and congestion, discern between community and privacy and distribute precious resources.
As I promised I showed “what can be done to make cities livable and worthy to be called home”. There are other urban topics I can present which you may select from the handout.

Finally,
Are you ready to be a new urbanist and culture others as you have been cultured by urbanism?
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I encourage you to get a vision for your home, block, neighborhood, community, county and city so that you may choose and manage your urban contexts.

Decide whether you choose between a corporate synthetic or natural context. Which one is right for you?

Also, visit cities, enjoy the one in which you live and know the similarities and differences between one and another city.

I hope you will appreciate cities and enjoy them for their own special and peculiar characteristics, its complexities, vulgarities and immense opportunities.

See the differences and distinctive and what they may have in common. Enjoy the big city for
Practice feeling the spaces between buildings and identifying the unique rooftops.

Get lost, reinvent yourself and become something you imagined you could be.

A big city can be very uncomfortable with inconveniences but it is usually on the cutting edge of new beginnings. Learn how to walk and perceive the faces and dress of people on the street.

Your old friends will call you crass and unconventional but once you grasp the fragrance and tempo of the big city, it will never leave you. You will be willing to sacrifice many of life’s pleasures for the stress, tempo, and sharpness that allow predators and creators to be all they are.

You will discover that no one man nor collection of men can create a big city but only a will on the part of a collective, complex, diverse and often adversarial separate teams.

It is not the architects, new Urbanist, and city planners dream come true but the diverse and contradictory reality of man’s creation.
It is mankind at its most optimum.

One and a Half Hour (one hour) has elapsed.
Now there may be time for questions and comments.
As I promised at the end of this lecture, I would leave time for any one that would like to share something about urbanism.
As I said in my first lecture since I am most at home, creating and solving problems I hope that some of you might have come here with an urban dilemma or comment you wish to discuss. I hope this lecture helped you frame some question that we can now discuss




Do you view suburban sprawl as an ecological threat and a waste of resources? Do you advocate for more vertical and denser town planning?

“Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism”
My Urban Legacy 15,482 words on 46 pages
by Barie Fez-Barringten
www.bariefez-barringten.com
Introduction
Green questions are rhetorical
Red questions are interrogatives.
Thesis and premises:
How many of you ever thought about urbanism (populate) as a culture (condition) or that urbanism could be cosmopolitan (universal)?
The title of these lectures is the “Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” because it aptly describes who we are and what we face. The sooner we understand our culture and its peculiar characteristics the sooner we can manage our lives and improve our living conditions. Increases in population and density culture our personal, family and business lives. We are cosmopolitan and urban as we agree, disagree, peruse common goals, tolerate stress and congestion, discern between community and privacy and distribute precious resources. For example, an urbanized person negotiates traffic, crowds, street signs, home mail delivery, and crowded places of public gatherings, ambulating, few stars due to bright skies, pollution, live entertainment, public transportation, and close proximity to neighbors.
The culture of cosmopolitan urbanism is both about those affected by population’s dynamics and the way they are able to utilize these affects to facilitate further population growth. Like any culture it can be inherited and once experienced, it can be conveyed and inherited by others. It is the responsibility of persons that have been cultured by urbanism to convey that experience to others to preserve the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism.

How many have ever thought of themselves as being affected by their environment and that an urban background can affect the way you think and behave?
Culture is the development of the intellect through training or education and the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns including arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. Dense population, crowds and opportunities breed specific kinds of social behavior and unique metaphors, which affect individual persons, families and institutions. These in tern conversely contribute to develop the social, cultural and built environment. It is a conversation between an increasing collective as they add and reject persons and institutions and the environment they form to support their individual and collective interests enabling us to mature, authenticate and develop our identity. We are one with our surroundings and expect them to perform.

In our time, we wonder what can be done to make the urbs feasible, livable, and desirable, what are the problems, and how can they be mitigated?
Sometime the problem looms before us.

What can we do to make the urb everyone’s identity, metaphor and home?
I believe if we fit the city to the metaphors of the population and its diversity then more people will care and when more care, the city will greatly improve. After all, form should follow function, and the population will only care if the city is their metaphor.

So, who will do this and what can we do to foster urban quality?
Is there one size fits all or are we already doing what’s right by acclimating and adjusting to the variables of our demographics, geography, climate, and socio-political necessities?

I believe when the A.I.A. asks, “What can be done to make cities livable” that the A.I.A. is taking responsibility for what they and others have neglected for several generations. I would put the question “what can be done to make cities livable and worthy to be called home”.
The Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” wants “livability” to be home.

But we don’t always perceive our surroundings as home. Some would agree and others disagree that American rural, suburban and urban cities find themselves needing to mitigate the bad choices, carelessness and narrow vision of their past. Since I gave my fist lecture on metaphors and architecture at Yale University and established the Laboratories for Metaphoric Environments in New York City in 1970, I have watched as the rift widened between architects and planners and therefore cities further deteriorated.
Can you identify any thing you do as having a particularly urban identity?

Thankfully, there are a few that simply love cities the way they are and accept the city with all there pros and cons, as a matter of fact the more the apparent contradictions, complexities and anomalies the better.
In these people are the seeds of hope but they are not usually the ones who take responsibility for shaping public policy, planning and design.

However, without pride, a personal sense of ownership and overwhelming moral and ethical mind I have found that states and cities become corrupt, permissive and pedantic frustrating those that love and invest their identity in the city’s metaphor and who believe their identity is authenticated and synonymous with the identity of the city and will accept most of any of its conditions.

What is the one thing that we all want in our home?
However romantic and interesting are war zones and circuses, man’s interests cannot be nurtured and developed in such areas. We all agree that law and order by civilized behavior is desired and necessary. On the other hand, life is more than the maintaining law of order.

From the farmhouse in Iowa to the penthouse in Manhattan, we all call our country, state, city, neighborhood, and community and house our home. It is the repository of all our metaphors, hopes and dreams. It is very precious, valuable and worthy of our attention despite the many who merely make a business and career out of profiting and policing agreements by consensus.

I have learned that without passionate and urban educated professionals the choices presented is less often the better of two evils. And neither one of them engenders civic pride and ownership. In Florida, the problem is how to shift the pride away from a snowbirds city of origin to a persons’ Florida home. For those in Florida where Florida is their home state, the problem is restoring and building their pride and interest in a quality city. As without a vision, a nation perishes so without a personal identity and affiliation of one’s home we lose our initiative, creativity and authenticity. Already the implications have manifest themselves in avoidances and overwhelming acceptance of banality and boredom. Since form follows function, we all know we work harder for less and with limited choices. Our new gained affluence has provided us ways of maneuvering around in a very prescriptive and formulary life style. I believe, the more we have a point of view about this culture of cosmopolitan urbanism the more we can improve the way we live.

So, who’s to blame?
Despite the warnings, I find few that really care for the future and generations that will follow, I have seen many who believe that planning is really un-American, and look to destroy our past with little care for the future. Therefore, I believe it is the job of our institutions to educate and be the custodians of the urban metaphors, which will help us, choose and manage urban contexts. For years, learned journals have published my monographs on this subject and still universities and governments do not have a way of knowing the metaphors of their constituents save the markets of commercial developers and the public’s reactions to infringements on their privacy.

What can the individual do?
I know that most are not in a position to choose large, medium or small urban contexts but rather to choose between rural and urban where these days’ most non-agricultural families choose sub-urban or urban clusters. On the other hand, if one chooses an urban context we may find ourselves managing its renovation, expansion or reaping its benefits and failures. Weather and climate aside, I believe an urban person’s first responsibility begins in choosing a city where he can find agreement and observe the qualities contributing to a better way of living. However, I observe that our society has come to rely on remedies and cures for everything hoping anything can be mitigated.

Does the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism make a difference?
Take the extreme example of how New Orleanians persists in settling in below flood elevation areas as do homesteaders insist upon building in coastal flood areas. Such strong and determined will overcomes many natural obstacles and I have observed that in urban settings such people are a force for the right decisions. We can see the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism at work in the will that strives to overcome the inertia of the physical. The urban person strives to maintain the status quo.

What is one of the ideals in any urban environment?
Aside from options and choices, our culture intuitively recognizes minimum standards that whatever the size, urban context is best balanced by a rural and undeveloped surround, which is often farming, mountains, forest, wetlands, or waterways.

I believe it wrong when these lands are sub-urbanized reducing escape options and quality of life. It makes this new area subordinate to the urb and without its own identity. In this frustration and without a national policy I observe people continue to migrate to places where these choices are possible. I believe New Orleanians, as most urban places will be faced with arresting and reversing this very basic practice. As they do, urban densities will naturally increase and our culture will evolve a cosmopolitan set of values.
What is the one word that means populating our surrounding land?

And how does sprawl it affect us?
Sprawl dilutes personal identity
We already know that the sprawl of the city’s structure and population damages urban lifestyle by adding time and expense to travel from the urb. For others, the only financially feasible option is the suburb because reasonable options are not locally available. So they surrender their urban for the sub-urban rather than downsize to a smaller urban. Such decisions are economically driven as mobile Americans find new employment, recreation, and business opportunities. I believe this is a disaster and while I am not in favor of birth control as a means of solving overpopulation, I am a believer in providing populations with quality urban contexts.

The problem has many vectors but because of population growth, immigration and migration urban mangers choose between permitting growth by new development on already platted urban and suburban land to accommodate that growth to consume undeveloped land.
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Who are the parties that can correct the problem?
It is citizens, educators and elected officials who are both interested in our context that understand urbanism who make better choices. In the late eighties construction permitting came to a screeching halt when Lee county introduced concurrency legislation which required all developers to first develop supporting and affected infrastructure prior to adding faculties which would burden the existing areas. The results did not slow or curtail growth because developers were able to meet the requirements and pass the costs onto potential buyers.
Has any one ever heard of concurrency legislation?

But concurrency only highlights how urban sprawl adds infrastructure instead of using existing. It also shows how, even with this condition many developers still prefer to exercise their business in rural counties than to build in urban centers. The important exceptions are New York City, Singapore, and Shanghai, which expedited developers in the building process. All of these cities were desperate to recover their lost income and contributing populations. While their decisions tapped into the existing city skyscraper and dense population, metaphors it brought people back into the city and away from the suburbs.

Many of our “urbs” that have sprawled now try to prevent growth by local town fathers following many European models, which keep the distance from the urb to the rural to a minimum. It is called “no growth”.

I believe that this alone can stop sprawl and increase the quality of urban life. Many communities in New England practice this while others have lat the sprawl ooze out to connect many cities and form metropolitan areas; as a result, the urban clusters have deteriorated.
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What is it that prevents leaders to change?
We do not convey our culture of cosmopolitan urbanism.
Highly mobile and transient communities have lost their ability to manage urban cities, buildings, and neighborhoods within metropolitan urban areas so that no one values their social, iconic and economic contribution to the balance and opportunity that citizens needs to thrive and grow. All because we do not have a vision and will for our urbs and continue to allow our lands to be absorbed by aggressive private real estate interest. I am all in favor of real estate as a business as I my self was once a Texas real estate brokers. But in our highly transient society, it is up to individuals and their institutions to be the surrogate and agent for society’s social ethos. Functional neighborhoods can be either victim or hero to combat the social and economic deterioration that contributes to the use of illegal drugs, crime, family separations and a much lower quality of life.




Existing urban cities, buildings, and neighborhoods within metropolitan urban areas should be valued for there social, iconic and economic contribution to the balance and opportunity citizens needs to thrive and grow, all because we do not have a vision and will for our urbs and continue to allow our lands to be absorbed by aggressive private real estate interest.

What are some of the pros and cons to increasing density?
Urban sociology
In the urbs the social benefit to all income and socio-economic levels occurs when necessities dictates increasing densities and adding new buildings and communities. This benefits existing populations in poorer neighborhoods because it allow for entry-level citizens to make their neighborhoods relevant and personally metaphoric. As older occupants relocate to newer dwellings, others move and renovate.
Often the neighborhoods become a mixture of people on differing socio-economic scales and diverse cultures.

It could even result in vest-pocket zone variances allowing for non-residential use where mixing both uses and economic social status often produces the best of both worlds for all citizens. But such a combination means mixing metaphors and aesthetics as well, which demands understanding the urban context. It is here where community verses privacy issues are identified, negotiated and sometimes reconciled. When they are not, the results are often disputes that result in violence and chaos as differing interest and tastes vie for their turf.
In 1967, to research for my thesis Precinct Police Station to earn my masters of architecture at Yale the patrol car I was in drove into an urban block in Brooklyn to face a heated gun battle with shots being fired from several buildings on either side of the street. While both officers left the vehicle they put the microphone in my hand and told me to lay on the floor in the back and tell headquarters what was happening, this was a dramatic repeat of the squabbles I experienced growing up in tenements in the Bronx.

Later the officers told me that this was a daily occurrence and that it was caused by these neighbors inability to reconcile their claim to the neighborhood and their difference in life style and culture.

I learned that to avoid such gun battles the metaphor of the urban city must be brought to the consumer to affect the way residents choose and influence public policy. They must either own, believe they own and be treated with the dignity and respect of a righteous citizen.
For new cities, and in light of the dependence on foreign oil in dangerous places, our dependence on foreign oil would be greatly reduced by simply accommodating population increases in urban rather than sub-urban settings because urban contexts can be made economic and metaphorically attractive.
I believe an economic urban design is the antidote to sprawl, expensive highways, power generation, grids, bridges, automobiles and fuel. I believe that one of the reasons the Europeans are not very sympathetic to the plight of American cities is because Europeans have practiced conservation while observing Americans squander its land, productivity, and natural resources.

What is being done now improve the urban experience?
Recently I have observed an increasing number of responsible institutions initiating programs that encourage spatial beauty, complexity, contradictions, vulgarity, opportunity, and mixed uses and formed such initiatives as “New Urbanism”, “Smart Growth”, “Blueprint for America”, “Principles of Intelligent Urbanism (PIU) and in New York City in 1970 we formed the Laboratories for Metaphoric Environments.

America is as much a place as it is an idea and our cities are one of the world’s most ethnically diverse demographic populations, which insist cities, is workable, fun and beautiful. Cities are often both recreational and exciting to even announce something like “New York is a Summer Festival”! In America when a city or place in city does not work, it is abandoned and destroyed and the American culture moves on to create a better place.







Can we decide between right and wrong, provide options and still manage our environment?
Hope and Vision
It is for this reason I am optimistic and writing and lecturing on urbanism because I believe we can have the will if only we had the vision, and it is up to persons like myself to present this vision, a vision based on empirical models and workable ideals. I believe it is up to design professional’s not disinterested bureaucrats, lawyers and accountants to create works of art, metaphors, and lifetime contexts while protecting the health, safety and welfare of the general public. Right now communities have grown up with the benefit of the talent and committed professional s needed to create livable cities.
However nice is Tamiami Trail, it will never match the Champs-Élysées and why shouldn’t it?
American architects have come to accept the “strip” as a given in modern cities.

What are the creative opportunities to foster a culture of cosmopolitan urbanism?
Recently non-rural city-constituents insist on a government, which has an urban mind, and culture, with people who are passionately urban and have a cosmopolitan point of view. A point of view unencumbered with provincialism but filled with compassion, education, and professionalism.
The mass media and Internet condition populations to the extent that they are emerging to desire the things that only an urb can provide.

However while there are many commonalties between one and another urb there are also remarkable differences. Obviously, since not all cities can be the same, makers of the urban metaphor makes the strange familiar and likens one urban-type in terms of another.

The urban creators must be more than a technical architect or planner but a profession that includes the commonalities and differences on many levels of issues and complexities; it needs a “culture of cosmopolitan urbanism”.




It is both a science and an art!
Such a culture knows the history of urbanism that deals with the increases in population and understands the urban mindset, providing intelligent choices so that citizens may choose and manage urban contexts in representative governments, their elected officials, bureaucrats and professional consultants.

Communities must ask whether their town-fathers, government leaders, elected officials, systems of government and laws are suitable for creating ideal cities, or, is it best left to the private sector which historically have been dictators, czars, pharaohs, feudal lords, and passionate industrialist who created most of the beautiful cities in the world by power and single-minded initiative.
They also created the most despotic unhealthy and unsafe cites the world has ever known. Few, if any city, when first began have a good beginning.
It is good that today, modern governments involve citizens to monitor decisions so that there can there be a city with the driving force of a people and their representative government, businessmen, corporations with a confluence of great and influential leaders. They debate whether to urbanize or not, to ruralize or not, to sub-urbanize or not, which is more appropriate and when, to extend or to renovate the existing, to build vertically rather than horizontally.

What should be the mix of rental verses owned properties and should these be built in higher or low density?
Often, the unspoken is about people’s life-style metaphors and the diversity of populations, vocations, and backgrounds.

Some ask about the very rich, while others debate the pros and cons to encourage, discourage, control or limit growth, zone or not to zone and plan or not to plan, other communities argue in favor of leaving such developments totally to chance and without anyone’s intervention, for example, Houston does not have zoning. These are all valid debates and contribute to the increase of quality in the built environment, which is best for the majority of the affected population.




So, why aren’t the leaders doing their job?
First of all, we are not conveying the culture of urbanism to them, by its very nature culture lives when it is received and conveyed.
Aside from the checks and balances afforded by our democratic form of government, two party system and cultural diversity the plight of Southwest Florida is exacerbated by demeaning the primary professional whose education and calling it is to create and develop the built environment. Instead, the authority rests with planners who focus on infrastructure, politicians who focus on politics, and developers who are interested in profits, while one of the solutions would be a school of architecture, which educates and advocates. Yet another dilemma looms and that is a culture of pragmatism and precedence law, even with a version of statute of limitations it still is used to win variances to change approved plans. Everybody knows we are what we eat as we benefit when we choose the right foods we must build the right environments, both affect our being.

What are the two different ways urbanism occurs?
To reify and convert the abstract concept of urbanism into a reality and identify some of the choices I have divided these two lectures on urbanism into two, one and a half hour (1 ½) plus 1/2 hour of questions and discussions to include Natural and evolving and corporately created, synthetic and mass- produced urban forms.

Natural cities include such cities as New York, Paris, Charleston, Leipzig, Florence, Madrid, Rome, Johannesburg, St, Petersburg, and hundreds of others. Cities which foster builders, general contractors and individual business to design and custom build on a small scale where individuals invest in apartment buildings, rental or condominium ownership.

This form of living is the metaphor of natural cities and their culture of cosmopolitan urbanism because people in natural cities gather together to:
1. Extract and manufacture products form natural resources
2. Exchange goods and services,
3. Attack others to acquire resources
4. Defend themselves from attack by a common enemy
5. Enjoy entertainment, recreation, and quality of life,
6. Farm and fish,
7. Import and export goods and services.
8. Pursue careers and work
On the other hand, synthetic city-types and clusters are corporately created and include New Towns, Planned Unit Developments, Commercial and Industrial Developments such as English Mountain, Sugar Tree, Al-Khobar, Reston, and industrial cities in China and Saudi Arabia (Dhahran, Abquiq, Jubail and Yanbu). Where land is developed, buildings designed and systematically mass-produced, manufactured on site or in factories as products according to pre-designed stock plans and specifications by large real estate development corporations.

Can we plan for urbanization?
Planning for urbanization
Organic new town or the garden city is a type of planned urbanization based on an advance plan of the type prepared for military, aesthetic, economic or urban design reasons. Planned urbanization on a mega scale is the construction of new towns by the Housing Development Board of Singapore.

Unplanned (organic) cities are the oldest form of urbanization. Examples can be seen in many ancient cities; although with exploration came the collision of nations, which meant that many invaded, cities took on the desired planned characteristics of their occupiers.
Many ancient organic cities experienced redevelopment for military and economic purposes, new roads carved through the cities, and new parcels of land were cordoned off serving various planned purposes giving cities distinctive geometries. I believe that either can be workable depending on the scale and quality of the government and the professionals managing the urbanization process, of course, without a good board of directors setting good policy the mangers usually falter.
I have an original study of the city of Baghdad which aptly describes the way the city was built by attaching one dwelling after another to each to form a gigantic honeycomb cluster. The west and the east both have different ways of forming their urbs.




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UN agencies prefer to see an urban infrastructure installed before urbanization occurs. I recall studying a village in Peru where my best friends served in the Pease Corps, after a community effort planning a community the built the sewer, water and electric systems as well as the roads. They also started a system of making local building materials to build and trained laborers. Landscape planners are responsible for landscape infrastructure (public parks, sustainable urban drainage systems and greenways) which can be planned before urbanization takes place, or afterward to revitalize an area and create greater livability within a region.

My curiosity about “why my environment is the way it is” gave birth to a passion for urbanity, cities, architecture, and design long before I even knew my own identity.
When I was a little boy, that curiosity was coupled with my building covered shelters out of a combination of blankets and wooden orange crates in our Hunts Point two-family house.

I therefore became the student and creator of the very places, which I was later to call my world, and when I became a member of the American Institute of Architects, I also became an authority on urbanism.
As a young person, I did reconnaissance to find out where I was in this world and to make everything recognizable, familiar and gain control of my opportunities.

For me the city was a metaphor for my identity and I authenticated my self by these explorations and constructions.
In much, the same way as did primitive man builds his first shelter and soon combined them together to form villages and agreements to develop them into civilized societies. Early Baghdad, and our New England towns and villages are examples where populations settled because of natural resources, waterways ands trade crossings.

Having said all of this about urbanity, I have always been metaphorically romantic about rural and small town life. I even enjoyed living in two venues for the twenty years we lived and worked in Saudi Arabia. So I am familiar with the plight of the so-called “snowbird”.

My cosmopolitan involvement with urbanity is personal and peculiar to me. I am not trying to teach anyone here the basics of city planning but rather to encourage a love and passion for the built and created man- made environment and to hopefully provide a roadmap so that citizens may choose and manage urban contexts, we are in need of a culture of cosmopolitan urbanism.

In brief, to share the passion, I found myself involved in one of those basics that affect everyone but few give much thought, the culture of cities and urbanism. Armed with this passion it is possible for citizens to choose and manage urban contexts. Yes, the key is education.
Much the way we are managing our health care I believe we must also learn to manage our contexts. I believe my mission in this CLL program is to impart that passion, the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism.
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What is the difference between cities and urban areas how is this distinction helpful to mange the control of cities?
While urban is about city dwellers and being civilized to do so Urban is also the very "characteristic of city life” while urbane became restricted to manners and styles of expression. Urban renewal, euphemistic for "slum clearance”, is recorded from 1955. While a city is the result of the accord, agreements of citizens it may remain unurbanized. A part of cites may be urbanized while others remain undeveloped. There are many cites which have whole districts that remain under the control of one city or county municipality who choose to urbanize that land, for example, Fort Myers’ relationship to Lee County. Also, some say they visit a city and do not get the sense that they are in an urban environment. The form of civilization may be different from theirs. As an example, my houseboy from Thailand chastised the Saudi Arabia custom of closing shops for prayers as in Thailand commercial time is so precious that most stores time shares a particular location to earn a living, when one proprietor leaves another sets up to sell his goods.

There are cities, which have a complete infrastructure but are not urban because its institutions, public facilities and limitations on public movement are limited and restricted. Before the iron curtain fell many cites under the Soviet Union were such cities, certain cites in Saudi Arabia are other such examples, they are apparently “dead” cities.
In this way urban is the life within the city while the city is the place and the urban is life or the structure, and things within the city.
The city is the agreements of accord and “rightness” of the place and all those within are “right” while the urbs are what they build to supply their needs and necessities. For example with public funds, they may build highways, roads, rail and bus to encourage private developers to build places for commerce, industry and habitation. They also build sidewalks, parks and playgrounds for children.

How does an urban culture shape a city?
Typically, culture is inherited and passed on from one to another generation to authenticate and both the new and last generation while enriching each person and the collective society.

Urban culture is the culture of cities. Cities all over the world, past and present, have behaviors and cultural elements that separate them from otherwise comparable rural areas. Urban culture is any of the behavioral patterns of the various types of cities and urban areas, both past and present. "Culture is the learned set of beliefs, values, norms and material goods shared by group members... Culture consists of everything we learn in groups during the life course-from infancy to old age.” In terms of the behavioral psychologist and urban sociologist, it is the result of a person being conditioned by their surrounding context and its multiple specific experiences with the facilities in the context. Cities such as New Orleans, Galveston, Los Angeles, Butte, and Detroit come to mind. The epistemology of urbanism explains knowledge how do we know something is urban and not just a city and is they’re any absolutes about what distinguishes a good from bad city. Scores of philosophers and urban scholars have tried to sort through these issues while civilizations settle and develop homesteads and build villages.
I began my formal journey under the greatest epistemologist of our time, now deceased after 91 years, my friend and mentor, Dr. Paul Weiss.
Like me, Dr. Weiss, a distinguished professor at Yale and then Catholic University, was born and raised in New York and he spoke with a distinct accent. I set out to prove that, as art was a metaphor so was architecture and therefore architecture was an art because it too makes metaphors.

To do this I had to first find an absolute definition of “metaphor” and then demonstrate how elements of architecture performed this way.
After years of research and many published monographs, I concluded that even culture is a metaphor. It is what people value and use to authenticate sustain and identify them. Their culture and the context of their culture are their “bridge “, address, and home root. It is their highpoint in a crowded world, which acts as beacon to guide them home and be their terminal to any journey.

What kind of urban people make a difference?
Urban people are enamored with the “city” and although they disagree about many things, they do think about it but in their own empirical way. They can be introverted, petty, sophisticated or vulgar and share a vision of cooperating in a common vocabulary reaching for the sky and demonstrating their ability to be powerful and “god-like”. Heroism in a heroic city is an expectation amongst its inhabitants.
Urbanites welcome heroes where many great cities have urbanized under the horsepower of its home- grown heroes. Urbanites are the center of one place and “every-where –else” uses them as a model.
They, the city and the collective persons with the urban fabric are, not only right, but also possess a power of place and collective wisdom and resources. They seem to have a super-natural authority and collective self-righteousness. They know and can decide about the trends, fashion, arts, finance, products and consumer’s needs and desires. These tycoons and entrepreneurs include Trumps, Vanderbilt, Morgan, Drake, Gates, Rockefellers, Astor’s, Waldorf, Howard Hughes (Las Vegas), Henry Ford, Carnegie, Whitney, Ford, Mellon (Pittsburgh), and the Arabian Gulf King, Emirs and sheiks are some such people.

In fact, none of the above may bear it out, but the allusion to being god-like (trend setters) permeates and fans the flame of the fantasy. The urbanite envisions the world with them at its center, emanating rays of light, products, words, songs, sounds, ideas, force, design, engineering, science, technology, religion, medical cures, and healing.
For example, in 1878, Edison formed the Edison Electric Light Company in New York City with several financiers, including J. P. Morgan and the members of the Vanderbilt family. These people received and conveyed the culture of cosmopolitan culture.





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In cities like New York, Paris, Rome, Mumbai, Beijing, Los Angeles and then a year or even later things spring up in other smaller and secondary markets.
Commerce plays an important part in giving a city its identity and vitality. It’s not all about profit but more the opportunity to peruse dreams, careers, family and relationships. It is the seed of a universal view and globalization. Most cities start with commerce exploiting resources and geographical assets before being a magnet to large populations. One can control unwanted influx of populations by curtailing employment.

As citizens, we can choose to live in such a city made by others or ourselves be part of the driving force. Often this translates into electing officials who will carry out this job. In other cases, it is simply voting on legislation, which allows private developers to do this job in the private sector. For these very factors, many have abided in cities while others have deserted cities for want of calmer and more benign context. Some cities prosper under a strong and guiding mayor while other cities simply grow with a mayor who encourages others to lead.
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Do urban persons affect the quality of the built environment?
The urban person is a believer in the world and its potential to keep and hold mankind. Art flourishes in the urban environment because it is where creative like- minded artisans and craftsman are born, raised and hone their craft on the challenges and demands of the market.
As Renaissance-kings and Queens hired and fostered artisans, so do the cities and urban populations provide fertile ground for invention, innovation, design, thought and ideas. Along with artisans, there are poets and writers who provide a libretto and describe the scenario of the urban context.








What do urban minded persons build?
Pedestrian appurtenances such as sidewalks, plazas, walkways, ambulatories, parks and playgrounds, street furniture, covered bus stops, train and airplane terminals, lookouts, and monuments are but some of the distinctive of both the natural and the synthetic urban city, whereas rural and sub-urban developments are predominantly accessed by horse and buggies or automobiles while, the pedestrian ways have much less of a priority and few people ever use these. Authors and planners such as Jane Jacobs, Kevin Lynch and Louis Munford wrote extensively about these urban features. It seems our quest is to bring rural pedestrian’s freedom into the city.

Space is another way of forming and perceiving cities where some cities are built as architectonic voids and solids, and others a series of free standing three dimensions solids perceived from the exteriors as shapes and forms as sculpture.

Most of the cities in Europe and the mid east and big cities such as New York, Paris, Cambridge, Barcelona, Florence, Rome, Venice, and Chicago are cities of a series and hierarchy of enclosed and bounded spaces. Los Angeles, Jacksonville, Houston, Dallas, and Seattle are the largest examples of such of the sculptural cities.

What does overpopulation mean and how is this mitigated?
The very idea of over population is a man made invention and its opposite in under population. It is only over when economists believe human, physical and financial resources cannot sustain a stable government. This is measured by a proportion of resources to the population and physically measured in scale. When a government is under populated, it usually means it has less people than it needs to meets its budget and maintains its programs.

Scale of cities can either attract or deter but in any case it is the scale of city’s utilities, support services, energy supply, vertical and horizontal transportation, commerce, industry, institutions, communications, and residential variety that motivates societies to urbanize in as dense and compact way as possible.


Scale is a proportion of one thing in relation ship to another and the larger and more dense the city the greater is the proportion of all facilities city per person where each person has access to the greatest number, sizes and quality of resources. Even the poorest is “city-rich”.

What are the advantages of higher densities?
On the other hand, the more the density the more people share in the collective facilities and the more efficient is each support facility.
For example, high-rises increase the numbers of people using one square foot of land, one foot or road, pipe, sewer line, power plant, elevator, train, or bus. The efficiencies translate into lower taxes and potentially higher standard of living if standards are based on access to the city’s amenities made possible and necessitated by scale such as hospitals, museums, parks, schools, universities, commerce, entertainment, rail and air transport and banking. It is on the matter of scale that Renaissance cities were designed and Mediterranean villages built. For example, my grandparents city of Rhodes, the city of Dubrovnik and the many shopping malls which have been designed to make the shopper at home.
The other side of scale is its disproportionate relationship to the single human individual. And, this is what characterizes the urban from the rural where the urban is naturally more general, cosmopolitan, individualistic, and not co-dependent having lived with so many to not be familiar with all but adjusted to being a stranger amongst many strangers, not familiar but a learned friendliness as civil to make the enormous scale work.
Urbanites are at peace with not knowing their neighbor as not knowing the workings, contents and interests of the whole city. Accustomed to being a cog a great wheel minds their own business while politicians and government officials keep the city going. Just get on a crowded elevator in a New York City skyscraper and try saying hello.









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What are the basic components of the urbs?
Architect’s Urbs
From an architectural point of view urban consists of structure, infrastructure, government, laws, agreements, ordinances, civilized society and civil behavior, consensus and concessions for public and private use, resources, and the provision of basic services, air, water, light, concerns for health and health services, tradesman and the ability to import and export as well as trade and exchange.
Urban allow persons to ambulate and move about without infringing on the privacy, sanctity and sovereignty of persons, families and business interest.
Urbs also harbor institutions created from the concerns for collective and ongoing remedies, and the development of the culture’s ideals in education, science, and art, as well as government, justice and communications.
An institution in any city is an organization, establishment, foundation, society, or the like, devoted to the promotion of a particular cause or program, esp. one of a public, educational, or charitable character. While they have the form of a corporation, they are, importantly, not-for –profit and their board is a cross section of the peers of that institution.
Urban centers often have institutions, which not only serve their own nation, but other cities and causes throughout the world. They are the early-globalized models for the globalization of the world.
On the other hand, they are subject and scrutinized by the context in which they operate.
It is conditioned by its history, settlement patterns, heroes, battles and treatise, and because all of real (royal) estate is never really owned but for beneficial use taken by hostile actions. Urbs are limited and bound by agreements by adjacent and continuous domains and their resultant configurations are a result of negotiations or victories.
Just look at maps and you will see that there are many states with jagged and messy boundaries while others are absolutely straight and angular. The later are those created by mandate of law while the former evolved and settled naturally. Even the way we buy and sell real estate today is by offer and acceptance to rights and privileges.



What are the impacts of the government on urbanity?
In a democracy, urban is a city that function, works and changes by the will and effort of its collective inhabitants, as example the way in which the cities of Naples, Fort Myers, Bonita Springs and Cape Coral have incorporated their communal interest. It is inherently communal, social to tolerate, adjust and accommodate both the private and collective rights of its citizens. The citizens of an urban city know their place and how it works .In what ever form of government the city is quite self-sufficient and run by individual, business, corporate and governmental self interest perusing their self interest and exchanging goods and services. The best urban city is disproportionably self-run with the least government intervention. It is a kind of benevolent anarchy.

Hong Kong is a prime example of a centrally ruled government leaving its hands off the working of its urban city, Jeddah and other Arab, Indian, and Pakistani cities do likewise.
For an architect, as it was in Egypt, Greece and Rome the goal is to design and build a city which is the sum and substance of its citizens where constituents can achieve their hopes and dreams for both today and into the future.
To achieve these goals the architect must know not only the culture of the people but the systems and resources to limit and bound the spaces, programs and resources they will utilize. In urban cities, these include many cultures combined into one and multiple systems of transportation, communication and education.
The urban architect is a responsible, concerned professional doing serious and important work for the community he serves.
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Urbanites use facilities as elevators, building lobbies, sidewalks, busses, trains, stores and shops, parks, and schools to culture, develop and mature. Urbanites are consumed and influenced by their environment the mass transit, massive buildings and vast complex of institutions.

Modern cities are a matrix of vehicle and people conveyance of goods and services, utility lines, sewage, water, electrify, and emergency vehicle access. Cities are a complex machine inhabited by people defying the proverb that form follows function.



It is more that people adopting to form while interior design mitigates the difference by adapting the form to fit the person. Education, Careers, Commerce, and Entertainment also mitigate the scale and visuals that mask the technology and scale of the city’s structure.

What is the crisis of urbanism in our culture?
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The culture of cosmopolitan urbanism is not being conveyed nor inherited from one to another generation. What was a legacy of from past generations coming from Europe or developing from within the USA is not being conveyed. In some societies the value of the urban experience is being eclipsed by other social structures. In other societies it is being exacerbated by mismanagement and rapid population growth.

History of Urbanism
Urbanism is a social, political, environmental, economic and geopolitical study affecting public policy, commerce and industry so that more colleges and universities are offering degrees in this important area of study and because of that I am pleased that many of Florida’s county planning staff is increasing qualified. However, without a college of architecture in South West Florida their well-intended efforts are often over looked by the courts. A local college of architecture would be politically and socially entrenched in the context and more persuasive.

Judges might think twice before overturning county staff’s recommendations if the staff were indigenous and educated in the venue of the court. Such a school would also educate and influence public policy affecting town fathers and developers.
With such a school, the developers might even be the architects and local planners. And judges may even be former students and architects.
Everyone but the real estate development industry and the farmer who may want to sell his land believe that urbanizing on undeveloped land is profitable. To both it is profitable but eventually it is profit at the expense of others.





What is pragmatic side of urbanism?
On the other hand, taxpayers, consumers and hard-pressed governments know that existing cities and urban centers make it expensive, unwieldy and un-profitable to practice real estate development as developers can do on undeveloped land.

As a result in the forties residents seeking more square footage, and better quality living space at a lower cost in big cities across America relocated to subdivisions in what became known as the city’s suburbs. In this way, federal and state policies governing agricultural property influences sub-urban sprawl. On the other hand, inner city urbanites left because of price and quality, developers, counties and manufactures found it profitable, and the start of a national industry. Highways got built, with low cost oil, oil companies built more refineries, automobile manufactures convinced every one to have a romance with his vehicle, mortgages and credit companies proliferated, and the corporations eclipsed many small businesses. On the other hand, there are millions of people now moving into urbs and even more that refuse to leave and endure some of hardships because they prefer the advantages.
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Dale Johnson in “Lost in the Suburb’s described a cultural and political gap that occurred in New Jersey and Ontario in the early 1990s when suburban voters began to outnumber urban or rural voters, and began to perceive that they were paying taxes to provide urban areas with services that were not duplicated in their community. Meanwhile, suburban communities would export problems to the cities, typically in the form of drug addicts, homelessness, smog, prostitution and other crimes serving suburban residents, and the need to accommodate a large number of commuters and their sewage and parking requirements.

As downtown residents and suburban voters became estranged, each perceived themselves subsidizing the other, and accordingly a common solution, called in both New Jersey and Ontario the Common Sense Revolution, transferred funds from urban needs to suburban sprawl, triggering a decline in urban quality of life in both places, as population further spread out and downtowns became more hostile to suburban visitors, the city of Johannesburg in South Africa is such an example.


To reverse this trend major cites have provided developers and builders with tax incentives, free land on deteriorated and abandoned property, expedited zoning and permitting, financing instruments and special mortgages, and the means to market the units before construction.
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In other communities, cities, and towns have adopted no-growth policies and prohibited such development; either urban or other wise to occur while others have openly embraced the onslaught of developers to their undeveloped land. While I am in favor of representative government, I believe that without a steady stream of voices from continuants that urban blight is inevitable. We don’t much discuss urban blight in Southwest Florida but it is the bane of every densely populated municipality particularly caused by disenfranchised residents who lack a culture of cosmopolitan urbanism.

However, much of Florida is suffering under a good policy called “smart growth” which after all its town hall meetings municipal development plans encounter the courts which continue to permit the absorption of wetland, watershed and fragile eco-systems, not to mention the increased demand to build more power plants, roads, and water supply. It seems that precedence law, free enterprise and rights of corporations often prevail.

Over recent years, not a few private groups, universities, professional associations have come out against these practices including my very own American Institute of Architects, while even more are still finding ways to rationalize and convince the federal, state and local governments that further development of raw land is good. All of this while thousand of cites, towns and suburbs are deteriorating and failing economically, socially and ecologically. I believe America is squandering its wealth.

Because urbanism is apparently hemorrhaging, coalitions are having an impact and public officials as they exert pressure to manage population growth, housing demands, immigration, transportation and affordability.



Still the quality of the built environment is increasingly finding its ways to smaller elite who are over worked, over taxed and compelled to meet the cost of maintaining the metaphor of the cost of quality living units in existing urban centers, suburbs and emerging new towns and PUD (planned unit developments).

Large developers have adopted the means and ways of large corporations focusing on profits by standardizing plans, policies, procedures and franchise and subsidiary operations.
They are increasingly staffed with graduates of business management schools concerned with efficient ways of achieving customer satisfaction while maximizing profits.
They do all of this while the middle class is compelled to have at least two sources of income to pay for two cars, mortgage and high taxes to pay for highways, power grids, utilities and water and support the overhead of these large corporate developers. The voices of the small architectural practice, craftsman and builder are made obsolete and unfeasible. More of them turn to the large corporation while town fathers yield to the lure of cash flow into their communities. Even in cities without zoning regulations, the results of litigation often grant variances to the Comprehensive Development Plans and favorable zoning. What seemed like a more affordable solution has now become even more costly in taxes, transportation, schooling, and the house itself.
The question is would everyone live in high quality affordable and cost-effective big urban centers? Promoters exploit the house as castle myth to justify single-family house construction while others simply build tall buildings leaving lots of open space where the house as castle myth becomes a condominium.
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What are some the ongoing things that are being done to deal with the crises?
All this having been said, throughout the formation of cities, there has always been a group of people that were favored to live inside the wall and others who lived outside, and the ones living outside had to build their own habitats in any way they could.

It is only recently that governments took an interest in the way the city and its outside city walls accommodated the citizenry.

In our time, the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a good case in point where the government gives every subject an interest –free loan toward the construction of a home. I harkens back to when the U.S. Federal government gave settlers free land. It depends on the objectives so that the ends justify the means.
Under various urban development acts and private initiatives, many big cities’ urb and squalor is being converted to livable communities reflective of its local residents.
Once a person becomes a citizen he is entitled to the rights, privileges and protection afforded to citizens. Cities built inside the wall were fortresses and instruments of defense of the royal family and its treasures.
Gated communities, new towns and other forms of private developments with deed restrictions are ways of providing residents choice, ownership and management rights, which maintain the quality of that context. However, urban clusters in urban cities are managed by neighborhood development agencies, both have evolved as good ways to urbanize. The people are being protected. Security and defense is American, and the goal of every urban settlement, from country, to state, to city. Whether urban or rural we incorporate to first and foremost to pay for fire and police protection.
However, cities still today repeat the same things as before where buildings outside the wall are influenced in styles, vocabulary and symbols by those inside the wall. Additionally, city layouts, building types and designs symbolically represent national and corporate beliefs in the forms of rooftops, finishes and models. Interior design, furniture, communication devices, media and the automobile have been great unifying factors. Houses are overbuilt with exaggerated multiple pitched roofs and exterior finishes likening them to castles, office buildings and hoses of worship. Just look at the advent of the boom in the computer designed pre-engineered truss industry in our SWFL counties.
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Has current events had an impact on urbanization?
Because most civilized societies think of their city as a fortress and collective power the terrible human tragedy of 9/11 and the many global terrorist assaults impact the urban psyche. Cities are now seeking a new metaphor of their densely populated urbs and sprawling cities.

Not to say that terrorist couldn’t strike anywhere or at any remote place but suddenly dispersion of the population with bulky, uniform and inefficient vehicles have become very fashionable. People moving out of dense areas now believe they need bulky vehicles.
In fact, the advent of the airplanes and bombs made all cities vulnerable. Still, commerce and individuals have rethought their personal settlement based on these new realities. However, no matter neither where we settle nor how many computers we own, economy, access to resources, socialization, identity and life support remains the advantage of what the city provides, and the urban city provides this to even rural communities.
Even our choices to have a private single family house as a sign of citizenry, or a corporation to have its own building identity all harkens back to our most primitive metaphorical instincts.
The anonymity of the urban multifamily dwelling for some is preferred over the ostentation of the merchant whose building roofline and form must rise above the others. Real Estate Developers and emerging political entities in urban’s adjacent counties tap into these logos, mores and folkways to overwhelm town fathers and government officials with rightness and worthiness of the metaphors they say they provide. Even post 9/11 automobiles are designed to be anonymous by being similar regardless of brand and cost.

If over population of the earth means that the earth has more people than resources or that we cannot redistribute the wealth and the resources what affect does over population have to do with increasing populations to an one city?

Because development of civilization results in urbanization, does it necessarily mean the removal of the rural character of a town or area?

Are we, as a members of the world’s family liable and able to mange the increases in population?
Is urbanity the only answer and how do we mitigate the inevitable?

It seems only rational that while many of us may value agricultural and rural communities, as products of the city and the urban process we choose and wish to continue to improve our urbs.


Demographically, the term urbanize, denotes redistribution of populations from rural to urban settlements and these developments, which may or may not become cities. Rural to urban migration is the moving of people from rural areas into cities. When cities grow rapidly, as in Chicago in the late 19th century or Shanghai a century later, the movement of people from rural communities into cities is considered to be the main cause, the cause of the world’s overpopulation. Many argue that it is cities that are causing the worlds over population and that urbanization is therefore inherently wrong. Because this kind of growth is especially commonplace in developing countries, they further argue that in order to reduce the growth of the world’s over-population urbanization should be discouraged and made difficult.

Yet, rural migrants continue to be attracted by the possibilities that cities can offer, but often settle in shantytowns and experience extreme poverty. In Saudi Arabia, planners are diverting such increases to smaller towns building up their infrastructure and relocating business and industry, however, in their case, they still wish to increase their native population, however huge their unemployment of young Saudis. Since they are one of world’s largest welfare states and able to financially support populations these population increases continue at a rapid rate as do the construction of urban centers. But there are many other countries whose urban developments do not keep pace or by political conflict displace millions into tent cities out side the confines of the urban support centers. Indeed, the culture of cosmopolitan urbanity is a very weighty matter.











One Hour Take a five-minute break: When we came back, we will examine Natural Cities. Break is only for 90 minute lecture.

Natural Cities:
5,070 words on 21 pages
How do natural cities form?
Natural Cities are incorporated government entities formed by resident citizens with a confluence of circumstantial and haphazard events over a period of time; it is a city that has evolved over time. They can be tiny and small or mammoth and overpopulated. Yes, it once was created in a much smaller, rural, and primitive form and over time is renovated and adjusted to accommodate new policies, technologies and demographics. The city reflects the nature of its creators and subsequent inhabitants.

To live in such a place you have to be a pragmatist who constantly negotiates changing realities and expects challenges to the very basics of existence. You are on the cutting edge of growth, deterioration and the inspiration of man-made achievements.
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Yes, Lee County’s City of Fort Myers and the City of Bonita Springs are such places. Whereas cities of Naples, Cape Coral and emerging Lehigh Acers are good examples of local synthetic man-made cities, not to be confused with local urban developments and enclaves. In today’s planning terminology they are considered urban really wide spread sprawl with very costly infrastructure relative to their population, industry and tax base. Whereas a Natural city is real or genuine when it reflects the character, interest, personality and pecuniary, social and political interest of its authors. It is economical and efficient.

What the privileges are enjoyed in cites?
A Natural city is driven by inhabitants wanting refuge, righteousness and sanctuary from chaos and confusion so as to grow family, business and prosper, to have a civil life with not only law and order but also infrastructure, potential and power. They are alive and vibrant with their own self-interest, backed by their determination to profit, and have a happy and successful population for themselves and their supporters.

They create such cities as a monument to their greatness, which is often material, industrial, and commercial accomplishments, and are a legacy of their fortunes and fame. It is a variation of the way traditional cities were formed.
And it is from this drive and vision that its inhabitants prosper and enjoy their life. The city turns them on. They are heirs of these creators and enjoy the legacy of their work.

To me a city is a toy and form of recreation and creativity to which I attribute many of life’s joys and great moments of happiness. Having lived and visited hundreds of cities and many countries of both the “haves” and the “have-nots” I am very grateful to have a blue passport, a great county and the blessings of cities.
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For example, a city is a metaphor when I say, “I am a New Yorker”.
I mean, “Were I a city I would be New York”.
Silly isn’t it, but in the realm of ideas and matters of the heart, it is real.
Natural cities lend themselves to metaphors that arise out convention because of the city’s long history and deep-rooted ancestry. Because a metaphor makes the strange familiar and “talks about one thing in terms of another”, one immediately characterizes a native New Yorker with the many images and values of the city, its’ crime, delinquent garbage collection, gangs, traffic, crowds, vulgarities, and other mean things. Not the arts, high fashion, financial district, millions of office workers, universities, museums, great hospitals, publishers and intellects, entertainers, performers and artist, etc. in general, a conglomeration of hyper-over-achievers.

New York City is one America’s and the world’s great natural cities where over 200 years ago was the place of battles that won America’s freedom and the city, which was the nation’s first capital.
To a New Yorker, New York is a metaphor because the city is currency that makes us authentic and part of a New York reality. And, this can be said for many other cities. The city authenticates our labors, strivings and ambitions into a homogeneous context of brilliance and success. It is no wonder why many New Yorkers are architects, planners and urbanist, especially native New Yorkers.

How do cities maintain their grip on our imagination?
In a natural city, the reality may be all myth, hype and imagination but it is the very thing that theatre, baseball and football teams thrive as they identify their city and teams with their loyalty and pride.
The culture of the city is that which changes, nurtures and grows us out of our own to the city’s nature.
When I was a young man, I couldn’t stop going from one theater, museum, zoo, building, and street to another acclimatizing and adopting the streets character and moods. One of the most read articles in every Daily News paper showed a corner of the city before and after in recognition of the city’s ever-changing face. I was always attentive to see what the place looked like before.
However, New York has not cornered the market on design professionals. Since every populated town is a kind of urban context many much smaller urban models have grown their version of architects and design professionals.
When I first visited 72 natural European cities, I discovered that each city owned a separate and unique metaphor, description and uniqueness. In their own way, they were urban with many commonalities and distinctive differences. They were all sizes, locations and climate. Since then I have visited countless others to observe them evolve and adapt.
Natural Cities manifest themselves in movies, books, poems, radio, stage shows, plays, songs, play, and games. In movies such as Casablanca, The East- Side Kids, Easter Parade, Detective stories such as the Mickey Spilane and the Mike Hammer series, Batman, Super Man and the Daily Planet, West Side Story, Rhapsody in Blue, and thousands of others.
Those that love cities endure the rain, sleet and snow. They endure crime, dirt and filth. They endure interruptions of garbage collection, power failures, outrageous crime, and poverty.
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What are the cities real support systems?
Urbanization process
Whether urbanity occurs in rural agricultural or urban industrial areas man’s infrastructure prevails as the underlying base or foundation especially for an organization or system. Man’s infrastructure is the basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons. It is these that prevail, not the nature, and the amenities as they do in rural and suburban communities.

In rural communities, nature prevails. However, it is the urban infrastructure that has sewn me into the mind of urbanity and enclosed my vision of the whole of life.
It is the canvas upon which the city’s form is woven and designed. Because of this city-type as an art form, one’s life and world-context differs noticeably and is distinguished one from another. Yet when either is populated by a variety of families and diverse interests they must face the same issues but on different scales.
In rural settings, man’s intervention is made by his personal relationships, dependence and handwork. In urban settings, such intervention is made by the overwhelming context and sheer volume of some trend, fashion, vocation, and opportunity. It’s a matter of the proportion of the relationship of the manmade infrastructure to the nature.
People from the old urban cities go to newly developing urban cities bringing experience. Warnings, passions and visions were what I brought to Saudi Arabia.

What are the cities natural geographical derivatives?
• River town
• Trade route intersection
• Terminal city; Shipping ports, Railroads and airports
• Farming cities; Agricultural and cattle
• Company town based on mining, manufacturing and industry.
• Ocean cities and waterfront
Can you name any others?
• Resort cities
• Results of victory of a war
• Oil, coal and other mineral mining and exploration Cities
• Tax-free districts in the Caribbean
• Or there geographical location has been made redundant by another technology or geo-political event as the many river towns of the Mississippi and New England and resort cities on the Jersey Shore.

What are the human elements that often cause the formation and development of a city?
Cities are heroic and made by heroes, entrepreneurs, and usually those whose interest lie in the place or circumstances surrounding, interesting and used by the place as trains, rails, ports, shipping, manufacturing, business, boat building, communications, telephone, telegraph, radio (Sarnoff), etc.
Can you name some our area’s heroes?
Edison, Collier, Mann, Carter; all the names on streets (McGregor, Heitmann, Hendry, …………………………?
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Cities can be large, medium or small and have dominant specialty in commerce, oil, coal, steel, manufacturing, agriculture and depending on the population and geographic area can be disproportionately overwhelming making it out of scale so enormous that makes it impressive and powerful.

New York is an outstanding example of this enormous scale. Many people feel dwarfed, lonely and oppressed because of the scale of such a city. It is this scales that design professionals are trained to create and mitigate to relate to individuals. It is the very thing that Michelangelo did when he designed buildings in Italy. While planners and politicians organize, two-dimensional plans and diagrams.
A natural city is urban for many reasons including its infrastructure but more importantly because of its confluence of institutions, artistic, scientific, spiritual and commercial culture. A city is by definition a people in agreement and both reflects and serves its citizens while an urban city favors its buildings, infrastructure and facilities over its pastoral connection to the land and its citizens favor residing in close quarters without separate buildings and so called single family homes, they share building living in separate dwellings.

What are the pros and cons of a cosmopolitan city?
A Cosmopolite has a universal, adoptable and diverse urban mind. But not all urban people are cosmopolitan and urban people can be very provincial.

Cosmopolitan persons are free from local, provincial, or national ideas, prejudices, or attachments, at home all over the world. Belonging to the entire world and not limited to just one part of the world, they are citizens of the world.

I have been a cosmopolitan person in an urban context that later learned to live in any context with my cosmopolitan point of view.
Think of science fiction stories where the context and characters are dealing with non-domestic technical issues away for the mundane politics of our own time and place. We like the cosmopolitan in our clergy, educators, government officials (bureaucrats), etc.
Who implements the Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism?
The correct answer is everyone!
But, urbanist are a specialist in the study and planning of cities and New Urbanism is an urban design movement that burst onto the scene in the late 1980s and early 1990s and tries to bring urban values into new and existing building contexts, but Urbanist are different from a rural and sub-urban mind.

New Urbanism implements the “Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism”
by shifting design focus from the car-centric development of suburbia and the business park; to concentrate pedestrian and transit-centric, walk able, mixed-use communities. New Urbanism is an amalgamation of old-world design patterns, merged with present day demands.
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It is a backlash to the age of suburban sprawl, which splintered communities, and isolated people from each other, as well as had severe environmental impacts. Concepts for New Urbanism include people and destinations into dense, vibrant communities, and decreasing dependency on vehicular transportation as the primary mode of transit.

New Urbanist aim to reform all aspects of real estate development and their work affects regional and local plans. They are involved in new development, urban retrofits, and suburban infill. In all case, New Urbanist neighborhoods are walk able, and contain a diverse range of housing and jobs, they support regional planning to achieve open space, appropriate architecture and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing.
They believe these strategies are the best way to reduce how long people spend in traffic, to increase the supply of affordable housing, and to rein-in urban sprawl. Many other issues, such as historic restoration, safe streets, and green building are also covered in the Charter of the New Urbanism, the movement's seminal document.

So how does Natural Cities expand?
The answer depends on the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism as whether it will go vertical, horizontal, reconfiguration, co-habitation or sub dividing. There are many cultures where several families share one dwelling or apartments and dwellings are minimal sleeping rooms.
In America, traditional urbanization exhibits a concentration of human activities and settlements around the downtown area. When the residential area shifts outward, this is called suburbanization.
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A number of researchers and writers suggest that suburbanization has gone so far to form new points of concentration outside the downtown. Some considers this networked, polycentric form of concentration an emerging pattern of urbanization.

They are simply reflecting how large natural urban centers evolved as they connected many population centers around industry, trade, transport, and ands commerce. Chicago, New York’s boroughs, and Detroit are famous for their ethnic and commercial neighborhoods and districts. We saw Leipzig’s new urbanist cluster neighborhoods shortly after the wall fell. A consortium of Saxon architect’s landscape architects and planners planned these. Each cluster had its own design team and theme. It is called variously exurbia, edge city (Garreau, 1991), network city (Batten, 1995), or postmodern city (Dear, 2000). Los Angeles is the best-known example of this type of urbanization.

So who’s minding the store?
Professional Urbanist
While conveying the culture is really everyone’s responsibility architects limit and bound space and make metaphors; they design and control overall concepts and all the details of the built environment inhabited by people.

Architects observe, program, plan, design, schedule, specify and supervise the construction process. An architect’s education prepares him for managing being the arbiter between the occupant and those with the skills to construct.
Because an architect is skilled in making building metaphors for people an architect is inherently urban and an advocate for all that best benefits the individual and collective society.
The architect professes urbanity and is able to manage a variety of urban functions including being the mayor, city manager, councilman, commissioners, and real estate development.


For example, I not only planned cites and designed buildings in Saudi Arabia I also drew up business plans for billion dollar financial interest for members of the Royal Family and Saudi Arabia sheiks; I organized specific new ventures for Operations and Maintenance business, pipe manufacturing, fire suppression equipment, and medical and pharmaceutical facilities.

What are the different professionals that design build and manage an urban entity?
When I was teaching in Saudi Arabia, many of my graduated architectural students have become mayors and city managers in Lebanon, Syria, Dubai and Iran. My monographs on “architecture as the making of metaphors” have been published in Saudi Arabia, England, U. S. of A., Lebanon, Turkey, and Finland. You can immediately tell the difference between cities designed by an architect by its spaces and three-dimensional solutions. Planners tend to think in two dimensions, linearly and abstractly.
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Programmer: The first job I had when I graduated Pratt was to develop the program of requirements for several New York City Multi –million dollar interior design projects for New York City’s skyscrapers in mid-town Manhattan.

Urban Landscape Architects plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways, and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees and this title was first used by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1863 who is famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City. Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant was a French-born American architect and urban planner who designed the first street plan for the Federal City in the United States, now known as Washington, D.C.
Landscape architects work for many types of organizations—from real estate development firms starting new projects to municipalities constructing airports or parks.
Working with architects, surveyors, and engineers, landscape architects help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. Urban design includes town and city squares, waterfronts, pedestrian schemes, and parking lots.

City Planning is a department in many colleges and universities and is the activity of determining the:
• Future physical arrangement and condition of a community involving an appraisal of the present condition,
• A forecast of future requirements,
• A plan for the fulfillment of these requirements, and
• Proposals for constructional, legal, and financial programs to implement the plan.

Interior Designers and Space Planners
Later in the year, I will be teaching course in Interior Design. Urban interior designers are concerned about adopting spaces within residences, skyscrapers, malls, shopping centers and shops to the specifics of their occupants and really take up where most commercial architects leave off. Before I was an architect, I was an interior architect and designed buildings from the inside out.
That is an architect who designs most commercial buildings without knowing who will be the specific occupant. Most such work is referred to as “tenant change” -work and is the job of first a space planner who determines the feasibility of the space to its potential tenant and then the layout.

Once completed the interior designer begins the design work. Stores, malls, hospitals, banks, airports, railroad terminals and many other building types are the job of the interior architect otherwise known as the interior designer. You could think of much of their work as adopting the architectural standard building shell to the specific and peculiar requirements of the proposed occupant.
Interior design is the process of shaping the experience of interior space and traffic flow through the manipulation of spatial volume as well as surface treatment. Not to be confused with interior decoration, interior design draws on aspects of environmental psychology, architecture, and product design in addition to traditional decoration. The distinction between interior design and 'interior decoration' is one relevant in the United States but not common elsewhere. In cities, residential interior design and decoration comprise a small but important field of work.




What other professions form a city?
Aside from programmers, city planners, landscape architects and interior designers, Constitutional, corporate and governmental Attorneys and law assist people who are in one accord to agree and formulate agreements, ordinances, statues and the very governments and institutions by which to incorporate their municipalities and behave in civil and orderly manner within their societies. It is in this way that a collection of people are able to become countries, states, counties, villages, hamlets, townships, boroughs, cities, and metropolitan areas. It is they who can make laws, which can help government and the people, be both pragmatic and ideal. It is this combination that allows great ideas to flourish while fighting crime and garbage collection.

How did I become an urbanist?
In New York, I was a child explorer:
From childhood, I have been curious as to why cities, building and streets are the way they are. I still ask how did they get that way, what is their make up and why were they formed.
In urban South Bronx, I lived in densely pullulated tenements, two family houses in a sparsely populated Industrial Hunts Point and medium dense Pelham Parkway and apartments in Manhattan, Tennessee, Austria, Puerto Rico, and Saudi Arabia, a loft in Manhattan and single family homes in Florida, Tennessee, Saudi Arabia, College Station, a town house in Houston and manufactured home in North Fort Myers.
And now we live in a country club with a small town communal atmosphere and many facilities. Many gated communities are a resource for recreation, entertainment, food, and even home health care.

As urbanites work, they become embroiled in aspect of the city’s support services. I practiced vocations, which bonded me to the city and its building types, commerce and industry. Because I hung drapes over a period of ten years, I worked in thousands of homes, for every ethnic and national background, on thousands of streets in hundreds of neighborhoods in every borough and nearby counties. I was a limousine driver for weddings and special events and delivered newspapers into many tenement buildings and neighborhoods. Likewise, I was a Good Humor Man in the streets of Brooklyn and conducted many Job searches in Manhattan and New Haven.
I was a radio broadcaster, founded a New York Not for Profit community organization and founded two earth days with one on Union Square at Fourteenth Street and another in Central park.
I designed and built large and small offices, lofts, lobbies, skyscrapers in Manhattan, and in Houston, Midland, Odessa, and Victoria Texas as well in Tennessee in Jackson, Severe and Walker counties, built all over Saudi Arabia; and, in Puerto Rico made an Island-wide plan for Public Libraries for all the municipalities as well as designing the Ron Rico Bottling Plant in Arecibo, El Mundo towers and other building in San Juan.

I poured my best into every project believing that it would contribute to the betterment of the lives of their occupants. I remember one nursing home I designed for renovation I stared at the windows of the 15 stories building and knowing that the view from the window would probably be the last the occupants saw of the world and therefore assured for beautiful landscaping. This was based on the recollection I had of my grandfather’s last moments waving to me from his Brooklyn Hospital’s window before he died when I was six years old.
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About American cities, the architect Robert Venturi once proclaimed that, “plazas are un-American” and one of my mentors, Gerald Popiel, often noted how the highest building in medieval cities was the church and worship centers whereas the highest buildings in modern cities are the banks and commercial office buildings.
America cities, as many other of the world’s well known cities have replaced and supplemented plazas with great boulevards and other expressions of consensus and agreement. Plazas and public meeting places are beginning to become a part of atrium malls, office buildings and office plazas. Even neighborhood commercial enters are focused around plazas as new urbanist make places for people to congregate. I was pleasantly surprised to see Washington’s huge plaza in Georgetown on the river and of course Boston’s Quincy market and its huge food plaza. These are all good urban features and attract people looking for the means to socialize. Of course in Manhattan, the Seagram building’s plaza on Park Avenue designed by my former professor, Phillip Johnson. Yet all of these in world-class cities are often reminiscent of the village green, Town Square, and county fair ground in smaller urban models.

What it takes to prepare an urban professional?
Using my self and my hometown as an example, I would like to explain what it takes to prepare an urban professional

My teachers and mentors:
I have been very fortunate to have great teachers and mentors, who loved cities and urbanism such as:
1. Paul Weiss, philosopher
2. Buckminster Fuller, theorist and visionary
3. Louis Kahn, architect
4. Mies Van Der Rohe, architect and founder of the Bau-House
5. King Louis Wu, Yale teacher and architect
6. Christopher Tunnard (who taught me about modern planned cities),
7. Paul Rudolf who was originally from Sarasota and
8. Henry Pfisterer (Engineer for the Empire State Building),
9. Vincent Scully was born in New Haven, was my faculty advisor
when I studied at Yale where he taught History of Architecture and was one of my thesis jurors, he spent a lot of time with me because I was a native New Yorker from the streets he loved and he wrote many books which deal with urbanity, cities and New York such as:
Architecture; the Natural and the Manmade and
American Architecture and Urbanism,

And I worked for such architects as:
•Kahn and Jacobs designing high-rise office buildings
•Edward Durrell Stone, designing the State University in Albany.
•Morris Lapidus assigned me to design and detail high-rise apartment buildings and hotels and finally used my drawing as examples of his offices work in his book. Morris Lapidus was born in 1902 and brought the ambience of Odessa Russia to create the curvy, flamboyant Neo-baroque modern hotels that defined the 1950s 'Miami Beach' resort hotel style. He died at the age of 98 in Miami Beach, Florida. As a young man, Lapidus toyed with theatrical set design and studied architecture at Columbia University where I met my wife Christina.
Truly, an urban thinker Lapidus worked for 20 years as a retail designer before moving to Miami Beach in the 1940s and designing his first buildings.



He was a product and espoused urbanism in all his work.
After a career in innovative retail interior design, his first large commission was the Miami Beach Sans Souci Hotel, followed closely by the Nautilus, the Di Lido, the Biltmore Terrace, and the Algiers, all along Collins Avenue, and amounting to the single-handed redesign of an entire district now known as South Beach. The hotels were an immediate popular success. Then in 1952 he landed the job of the largest luxury hotel in Miami Beach, the property he is most associated with, the Fontainebleau Hotel, which was followed the next year by the equally successful Eden Roc and the Americana (now the Sheraton Bal Harbor) in 1956. His son Alan who practices architecture in Fort Lauderdale survives him.
•Designs for Business and Gerald Luss assigned me to design very expensive huge interior spaces for banks, factoring companies and manufactures.
•Frederick Kiesler for whom I built the model for the Dome for the Dead Scrolls Museum in Israel.
•Serge Chermayeff for whom I did the graphics for his report using his theory of complementarities to the US bureau of Standards of Cites, campus and town planning.
•I was invited to teach Real Estate Development to Architectural students at the University of Houston and where ever I taught architecture in America I always urged students to get out of their suburbs and rural communities and learn “New York 101”. They could not really be architects unless they learned the lesson New York had to teach, lessons, which I learned in the first 21 years of my life.

What are the Events and Projects that shaped New York?
1. Settlers after the Revolution
2. Port for trade and shipbuilding
3. Clearing up the squalor
4. Fire codes
5. Building codes
6. Establishing the architectural profession and American Institute of
Architects General Conditions between builders and Owners
7. Subways: Irish and great engineering; tunnels
8. Grand Central Station and Park Ave Railroad project
9. Stock Exchange
10. Air travel and airports
11. Robert Moses: parks and recreation
12. Quantity of wealthy merchants that settled and made their business
in New York City such as Rockefeller, Astor, Mellon, Vanderbilt, Tiffany, etc.
13. Landmarks Legislation and preservation
14. Broadway, vaudeville, theatre, opera, ballet, museums, planetarium, parks,
15. Central Park
16. Consolidating the boroughs in to one city government
17. Use of iron, steel and fireproofing.
18. Invention of the Elevator brought the invention of the skyscrapers
to Chicago and New York as well as the Eiffel tower to Paris. Indians learned to walk in the sky and the construction industry was unionized.
19. Postal system delivering letters to every ones mailbox in every apartment, rain, sleet or snow.
20. The attack on the World Trade Center
Are there events and that caused a city you know to loose its’ population or quality of life?

Here are the Projects that negatively affected New York City.
• Robert Moses and his highways, which destroyed/divided neighborhoods and reduced the values of building and occupancy
• A combination of affluence by tenants increased demand for improvements to rental properties, which could not be met by landlords due to increased property taxes and cost of construction. Building owners, contractors and real-estate business found low priced and unrestricted properties in adjacent unincorporated counties on which to build low cost and attractive housing. This along with Government backed home mortgages and veteran’s low-cost loans prompted the creation of what we call suburbs and later sub divisions, Planned Unit Developments, and New towns. The exodus out of the big cities devastated inner city neighborhoods and brought in drug dealers and crime.
• The exodus nurtured itself as the more people left the worse things got. I remember how people would seek to go to Long Island and Westchester County to get bigger and more affordable housing.
• “Project” buildings replaced “tenements” which destroyed neighborhoods and housed families within floors of large-scale buildings; the resulting anonymity became a perfect cover for the illegal sale of drugs.
• Crime and narcotics moved into slums as Fort Apache #14 Precinct in the Bronx my old neighborhood in the Morrisania area of the South Bronx.
• Low-cost new houses in the emerging suburbs were built off of unpaved roads in Long Island where you could buy a house with no-to-low interest VA loan for houses costing between $2,500 up to $6,000 made access possible by the construction of Triborough Bridge, Whitestone Bridge, the Long Island Expressway and the Grand Central Parkway.

What are the inherent negatives about a big old city and the Urban State of Mind?
Despite all the wonderful things in a city its scale, size and complexity brings, rats, roaches, gangs, crime, murder, rape, theft, security and problems meaning that everyone has to be cautious about the time of day and the streets and neighborhoods visited.
The city is not elegant but bawdy, vulgar and always on the cutting of edge of changing, de-construction, rebuilding as it adopts to new demands by commerce, demographics, economics and commercial opportunity. The city thrives on commerce and the labor of its inhabitants. It also is a self-redesigning, rebuilding and healing engine of humanity.
All of these provide anecdotal justifications for corporate developers to market to fleeing residents.

What are the causes of renewed interest in urbanization?
• Suburbs cost is becoming too high and unaffordable
• Improved facilities for education and jobs in the city.
• Quality of Life
• Environmental, ecology and health
• Education
• Recreation, entertainment, and access
• Commercial development and socialization







Is there an ideal urban natural city?
Most ideal urban settings are broken down into communities and neighborhoods. In my neighborhoods we had immediate access to fresh produce markets, entertainment, recreation, socialization, schools in walking distance, public transportation including busses and subways, commercial development shops and shopping street, Cops on the beat, playgrounds, and a ethnically diverse neighborhood of friends and neighbors.

The key features of the apartment in the tenement in which we lived
These features originated with the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism, building codes and available technologies.
•Outside stoop
•Set back adjacent to the sidewalk
•Auto parking on the street
•The metal stairs down to the cellar in front of the building
•Place for coal deliveries and ash pick-up
•Cellar had a giant coal burning furnace and place for the pile of coal
•The vertical black painted iron grille
•The fire escapes on the front and rear of the building in front of most of the out facing windows.
• The cornices on top of each building which form a frame to the line of the buildings, accentuate the line and evenness of the buildings, cap between the canyon formed by the buildings and the sky
•The mailbox area in back of the ground floor (We never changed it keep the rent control in place)
•The inner lobby with large glass doors and white marble steps and landing
• The front door to our apartment, which was notably: "A”, being the first one on the ground floor directly facing the street but separated by an eight foot access way with steel stair leading to the basement and surrounded by black steel vertical guard rail.
•The gas stove in the kitchen
•The ice box and the first refrigerator with its leaking ammonia
•Window box pantry in the kitchen
•Cloths line into the alley from our kitchen window
•The alley
•Window with their stained glass clerestory windows.
• Painted-over windows, which got stuck and were very difficult to open because of broken chains, weights and paint.
•Linoleum floors described elsewhere
•Parquet floors
• French doors between living room and my bedroom
• Radiators and steam heat with radiator covers to add humidity
•The cocker roaches and mice
•Garbage pails and sanitation trucks and collection
• Police car and fire engine horns, bells and sirens
• Painting the apartment every two years because the led paint would peal, fall on the floor and get dirty
• Molding and baseboards on the walls
• Bathtub with legs
• Roof tops, entrances, tarpaper, and games and play areas.
• Fire hydrants in the summer
• Parking cars; alternate side of the street; snow; cleaning the car
• Street games: tag, rig-a-leev-eo, hopscotch, stick- ball, skating, foot scooter, race box with skate wheels below
• Fie-escapes
• Loews Movie Theatres: All lived together in tight quarters and went to the Loews movie theaters, which were furnished and designed to look like palaces.
If you were to visit your favorite city what would be the places you would want to see?

If I were to visit New York today, I would want to be a pedestrian because being a pedestrian is what I miss most about not being in an urban context to go:
• window-shopping on Fifth Avenue
• Visit Henri Bendels, Tiffany’s, Sacks, Bloomingdale’s, etc.
• Ambulate on the boulevards and side streets
• Explore the subways
• Climb the stairs of the train’s elevated structures
• Visit lobbies; see my old residences and streets
• Snack pizzas and hot dogs as we walk
• Visit Radio city Music Hall and Radio City underground
• See the Rockefeller Center and Central Park ice skating rinks
• Ride on the Staten Island Ferry
• Visit the little mini-new town off of City Island
• See my old schools
• Walk down Southern Boulevard, Broadway and 42-nd streets
• Visit central park
• Visit the Bronx Zoo
• Visit the new Hayden Planetarium
• Visit Coney Island and get an Original Nathan’s Frankfurter
• Walk down some back alleys and side streets

One and a Half Hour has elapsed. Now there may be time (20 minutes) for questions and comments.

Conclusion:
My thesis that a “Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” assumes that increases in population and density culture our personal, family and business. We are cosmopolitan and urban as we agree, disagree, peruse common goals, tolerate stress and congestion, discern between community and privacy and distribute precious resources. I hope I have shown “what can be done to make cities livable and worthy to be called home”. The Culture of Cosmopolitan Urbanism” wants “livability” to be home. I believe the culture of cosmopolitan urbanism is life’s experience and a legacy worth cherishing and conveying.

At the beginning, I asked if there was an urban issue you would like to discuss or question you’d like to ask. Does anyone have an urban concern or solution?
As time may permit:
• Are you now better prepared to understand, perceive and choose your urban context?
• Do you have a vision for your home, block, neighborhood, community, county and city?
•Can you name some large, medium and small cities?
•Which is your favorite city and why?
•Can you identify cities with closed and bounded space?
•Can you identify cities with open and sculptural spaces?
•What makes you curious? Is it medicine, law, cities, politics, what?
•Do you see a role for yourself in the creation, reinvention and improvement of your city?




What are you working on now?

My current novel is called "Reveka Returns." It's about a vampire who was killed in the late 19th century. She is turned into an astral vampire who feeds off the life-force of people while they sleep. Reveka stores enough life-force to make a corporeal exchange with one of her victims. She finds herself present day in the Pacific Northwest once again as a master vampire. From there, problems arise!



What is your favorite genre? Can you provide a link to a site where we can read some of your work or learn something about it?

I read massive amounts of history, regardless of time frame or location. I seem obsessed with all things late 19th century U.S., from Gold Rush days of the 1840s to the Transcontinental Railroad to the Civil War to the construction of the earliest cruise ships. I could just as easily have a book on John Adams as an analysis of salt throughout the ages and the world. Very eclectic stuff. My work, to date, does not reflect these passions. Historical fiction is my ultimate goal, but as yet I am filling a void in contemporary literature regarding cruise ships and the life working on them. My website says much more.
www.CruiseConfidential.info




What is your favorite genre? Can you provide a link to a site where we can read some of your work or learn something about it?

It helps if there's plenty of action & wittiness. Not necessarily a novel. I like graphic novels, action comics, from Britain & America. They taught me a lot of things, about suspense, action, a good story & life. I also like spirituality & well written poetry , especuially English poetry of the 19th Century. There is a great contrast within each of us. I just happen to blend both & hold them together.

You can find my humorous work available for download via mobile internet:
http://www.u.com.my/umobile/page/UGotIt/LoadCpPage?UGotIt_1_1url=http://202.186.13.143:8080/umobile/index.php

I have work at the BBC & Gutenberg.net
At the BBC, I can be found here:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/culture/writestuff/2003/08/dom_02.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/culture/writestuff/2003/08/dom.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/culture/writestuff/2003/08/dom_06.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/culture/writestuff/2003/08/dom_07.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/culture/writestuff/2003/08/dom_08.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/culture/writestuff/2003/08/dom_05.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/culture/writestuff/2003/08/dom_03.shtml

At Gutenberg.net I have the honour of being listed while still alive. Allocated for books published before 1923, my inclusion was an exception.
Use Google and key in 'dominaeprimus' or search for 'Dom' at gutenberg.net




Do you consider yourself postmodern?

No.

And this is because I know how the term "modern" appears and reappears every few years. There were "modern" artists in the 19th Century! If that was modern, I am "post-post-post-post-post modern".

Art ignoramus need clasifications to find some sense in the surge of artists of our world, so blessed be the art critics for creating such classifications. In the past, the artists themselves grouped in "schools" or under names. Today, it is the art critics who group very often artists that hate one another. After all, art critics have to make a living.

I am not in any tendency. I am me, not part of a group or tendency.




Which artists do you admire and how do they influence your work?

This answer could fill a book. So I'll write the condensed version. I'm influenced equally by deceased artists (mainly those living in the late 19th, early 20th century), as well current living fine artists, as well as current working commercial artists. Looking at another artists' work is like getting a free pass into their brain, and I gain insights on things that I'd probably never have thought of in a million years. That kind of stimulation is essential for growth, I think. Of course, you can also break down other artists' work and make studies of it to build your own skills. I have stacks of those. If you want to know my favourite artist ever, I would have to say John Singer Sargent. And I'm not going to tell you why.



Do you work alone or in a group? If in a group, who are the others you work with?

I prefer to work alone, yes. A solo musician must be prepared to spend many long hours developing an array of skills such as physical and mental preparation, repertoire, and also the hard slog of self-promotion via the internet and other sources of publicity. For me, the whole solo thing would fall apart if I was to just 'perform'. Others need to know that you exist that's for certain!

That said, I do enjoy being able to communicate with others. So I have been developing links with other musicians. I find it refreshing to play with the very talented guitarist-singer and songwriter, Albert Nuijten. We often play together in Spain. Albert and I try to help each other improve our guitar playing and we also to help each other learn to play in a relaxed manner. That is, we help each other in order to avoid aggravating our guitar-related physical injuries."Ater in 2012 I get to play with master-guitarist Roland Chadwick where we'll be playing mostly 19th Century duos. Roland and I perform together at the annual UK Guitar Fest at South Hill Park Arts Centre. If it wasn't for such collaborations, I wouldn't get to enjoy the 'real' guitar repertoire. By that, it's not just the Segovia classical legacy but the Hendrix or Django Reinhardt legacies that are equally valid, to me at least.




How do you find the balance between working to live and living to work?

In his book, "A Farewell to Alms" (Princeton University Press, 2007), Gregory Clark, an economic historian at the University of California, Davis, suggests that downward social mobility in England caused the Industrial Revolution in the early years of the 19th century. As the offspring of peasants died off of hunger and disease, the numerous and cosseted descendants of the British upper middle classes took over their jobs.

These newcomers infused their work and family life with the values that made their luckier forefathers wealthy and prominent. Above all, they introduced into their new environment Max Weber's Protestant work ethic: leisure is idleness, toil is good, workaholism is the best. As Clark put it:

“Thrift, prudence, negotiation and hard work were becoming values for communities that previously had been spendthrift, impulsive, violent and leisure loving.”

Such religious veneration of hard labor resulted in a remarkable increase in productivity that allowed Britain (and, later, its emulators the world over) to escape the Malthusian Trap. Production began to outstrip population growth.

But the pendulum seems to have swung back. Leisure is again both fashionable and desirable.

The official working week in France has being reduced to 35 hours a week (though the French are now tinkering with it). In most countries in the world, it is limited to 45 hours a week. The trend during the last century seems to be unequivocal: less work, more play.

Yet, what may be true for blue collar workers or state employees - is not necessarily so for white collar members of the liberal professions. It is not rare for these people - lawyers, accountants, consultants, managers, academics - to put in 80 hour weeks.

The phenomenon is so widespread and its social consequences so damaging that it has acquired the unflattering nickname workaholism, a combination of the words "work" and "alcoholism". Family life is disrupted, intellectual horizons narrow, the consequences to the workaholic's health are severe: fat, lack of exercise, stress - all take their lethal toll. Classified as "alpha" types, workaholics suffer three times as many heart attacks as their peers.

But what are the social and economic roots of this phenomenon?

Put succinctly, it is the outcome of the blurring of boundaries between work and leisure. This distinction between time dedicated to labour and time spent in the pursuit of one's hobbies - was so clear for thousands of years that its gradual disappearance is one of the most important and profound social changes in human history.

A host of other shifts in the character of work and domestic environments of humans converged to produce this momentous change. Arguably the most important was the increase in labour mobility and the fluid nature of the very concept of work and the workplace.

The transitions from agriculture to industry, then to services, and now to the knowledge society, increased the mobility of the workforce. A farmer is the least mobile. His means of production are fixed, his produce mostly consumed locally - especially in places which lack proper refrigeration, food preservation, and transportation.

A marginal group of people became nomad-traders. This group exploded in size with the advent of the industrial revolution. True, the bulk of the workforce was still immobile and affixed to the production floor. But raw materials and finished products travelled long distances to faraway markets. Professional services were needed and the professional manager, the lawyer, the accountant, the consultant, the trader, the broker - all emerged as both parasites feeding off the production processes and the indispensable oil on its cogs.

The protagonists of the services society were no longer geographically dependent. They rendered their services to a host of geographically distributed "employers" in a variety of ways. This trend accelerated today, with the advent of the information and knowledge revolution.

Knowledge is not geography-dependent. It is easily transferable across boundaries. It is cheaply reproduced. Its ephemeral quality gives it non-temporal and non-spatial qualities. The locations of the participants in the economic interactions of this new age are transparent and immaterial.

These trends converged with increased mobility of people, goods and data (voice, visual, textual and other). The twin revolutions of transportation and telecommunications really reduced the world to a global village. Phenomena like commuting to work and multinationals were first made possible.

Facsimile messages, electronic mail, other forms of digital data, the Internet - broke not only physical barriers but also temporal ones. Today, virtual offices are not only spatially virtual - but also temporally so. This means that workers can collaborate not only across continents but also across time zones. They can leave their work for someone else to continue in an electronic mailbox, for instance.

These technological advances precipitated the transmutation of the very concepts of "work" and "workplace". The three Aristotelian dramatic unities no longer applied. Work could be performed in different places, not simultaneously, by workers who worked part time whenever it suited them best.

Flextime and work from home replaced commuting (much more so in the Anglo-Saxon countries, but they have always been the harbingers of change). This fitted squarely into the social fragmentation which characterizes today's world: the disintegration of previously cohesive social structures, such as the nuclear (not to mention the extended) family.

All this was neatly wrapped in the ideology of individualism, presented as a private case of capitalism and liberalism. People were encouraged to feel and behave as distinct, autonomous units. The perception of individuals as islands replaced the former perception of humans as cells in an organism.

This trend was coupled with - and enhanced by - unprecedented successive multi-annual rises in productivity and increases in world trade. New management techniques, improved production technologies, innovative inventory control methods, automatization, robotization, plant modernization, telecommunications (which facilitates more efficient transfers of information), even new design concepts - all helped bring this about.

But productivity gains made humans redundant. No amount of retraining could cope with the incredible rate of technological change. The more technologically advanced the country - the higher its structural unemployment (i.e., the level of unemployment attributable to changes in the very structure of the market).

In Western Europe, it shot up from 5-6% of the workforce to 9% in one decade. One way to manage this flood of ejected humans was to cut the workweek. Another was to support a large population of unemployed. The third, more tacit, way was to legitimize leisure time. Whereas the Jewish and Protestant work ethics condemned idleness in the past - the current ethos encouraged people to contribute to the economy through "self realization", to pursue their hobbies and non-work related interests, and to express the entire range of their personality and potential.

This served to blur the historical differences between work and leisure. They are both commended now. Work, like leisure, became less and less structured and rigid. It is often pursued from home. The territorial separation between "work-place" and "home turf" was essentially eliminated.

The emotional leap was only a question of time. Historically, people went to work because they had to. What they did after work was designated as "pleasure". Now, both work and leisure were pleasurable - or torturous - or both. Some people began to enjoy their work so much that it fulfilled the functions normally reserved to leisure time. They are the workaholics. Others continued to hate work - but felt disorientated in the new, leisure-like environment. They were not taught to deal with too much free time, a lack of framework, no clear instructions what to do, when, with whom and to what end.

Socialization processes and socialization agents (the State, parents, educators, employers) were not geared - nor did they regard it as their responsibility - to train the population to cope with free time and with the baffling and dazzling variety of options on offer.

We can classify economies and markets using the work-leisure axis. Those that maintain the old distinction between (hated) work and (liberating) leisure - are doomed to perish or, at best, radically lag behind. This is because they will not have developed a class of workaholics big enough to move the economy ahead.

It takes workaholics to create, maintain and expand capitalism. As opposed to common opinion, people, mostly, do not do business because they are interested in money (the classic profit motive). They do what they do because they like the Game of Business, its twists and turns, the brainstorming, the battle of brains, subjugating markets, the ups and downs, the excitement. All this has nothing to do with money. It has everything to do with psychology. True, money serves to measure success - but it is an abstract meter, akin to monopoly money. It is proof shrewdness, wit, foresight, stamina, and insight.

Workaholics identify business with pleasure. They are hedonistic and narcissistic. They are entrepreneurial. They are the managers and the businessmen and the scientists and the journalists. They are the movers, the shakers, the pushers, the energy.

Without workaholics, we would have ended up with "social" economies, with strong disincentives to work. In these economies of "collective ownership" people go to work because they have to. Their main preoccupation is how to avoid it and to sabotage the workplace. They harbour negative feelings. Slowly, they wither and die (professionally) - because no one can live long in hatred and deceit. Joy is an essential ingredient of survival.

And this is the true meaning of capitalism: the abolition of the artificial distinction between work and leisure and the pursuit of both with the same zeal and satisfaction. Above all, the (increasing) liberty to do it whenever, wherever, with whomever you choose.

Unless and until Homo East Europeansis changes his state of mind - there will be no real transition. Because transition happens in the human mind much before it takes form in reality. It is no use to dictate, to legislate, to finance, to cajole, or to bribe. It was Marx (a devout non-capitalist) who noted the causative connexion between reality (being) and consciousness. How right was he. Witness the prosperous USA and compare it to the miserable failure that was communism.

From an Interview I Granted

Question: In your article, Workaholism, Leisure and Pleasure, you describe how the line between leisure and work has blurred over time. What has allowed this to happen? What effect does this blurring have on the struggle to achieve a work-life balance?

Answer: The distinction between work and leisure times is a novelty. Even 70 years ago, people still worked 16 hours a day and, many of them, put in 7 days a week. More than 80% of the world's population still live this way. To the majority of people in the developing countries, work was and is life. They would perceive the contrast between "work" and "life" to be both artificial and perplexing. Sure, they dedicate time to their families and communities. But there is little leisure left to read, nurture one's hobbies, introspect, or attend classes.

Leisure time emerged as a social phenomenon in the twentieth century and mainly in the industrialized, rich, countries.

Workaholism - the blurring of boundaries between leisure time and time dedicated to work - is, therefore, simply harking back to the recent past. It is the inevitable outcome of a confluence of a few developments:

(1) Labour mobility increased. A farmer is attached to his land. His means of production are fixed. His markets are largely local. An industrial worker is attached to his factory. His means of production are fixed. Workers in the services or, more so, in the knowledge industries are attached only to their laptops. They are much more itinerant. They render their services to a host of geographically distributed "employers" in a variety of ways.

(2) The advent of the information and knowledge revolutions lessened the worker's dependence on a "brick and mortar" workplace and a "flesh and blood" employer. Cyberspace replaces real space and temporary or contractual work are preferred to tenure and corporate "loyalty".

Knowledge is not geography-dependent. It is portable and cheaply reproduced. The geographical locations of the participants in the economic interactions of this new age are transparent and immaterial.

(3) The mobility of goods and data (voice, visual, textual and other) increased exponentially. The twin revolutions of transportation and telecommunications reduced the world to a global village. Phenomena like commuting to work and globe-straddling multinationals were first made possible. The car, the airplane, facsimile messages, electronic mail, other forms of digital data, the Internet - demolished many physical and temporal barriers. Workers today often collaborate in virtual offices across continents and time zones. Flextime and work from home replaced commuting. The very concepts of "workplace" and "work" were rendered fluid, if not obsolete.

(4) The dissolution of the classic workplace is part of a larger and all-pervasive disintegration of other social structures, such as the nuclear family. Thus, while the choice of work-related venues and pursuits increased - the number of social alternatives to work declined.

The extended and nuclear family was denuded of most of its traditional functions. Most communities are tenuous and in constant flux. Work is the only refuge from an incoherent, fractious, and dysfunctional world. Society is anomic and work has become a route of escapism.

(5) The ideology of individualism is increasingly presented as a private case of capitalism and liberalism. People are encouraged to feel and behave as distinct, autonomous units. The metaphor of individuals as islands substituted for the perception of humans as cells in an organism. Malignant individualism replaced communitarianism. Pathological narcissism replaced self-love and empathy.

(6) The last few decades witnessed unprecedented successive rises in productivity and an expansion of world trade. New management techniques, improved production technologies, innovative inventory control methods, automatization, robotization, plant modernization, telecommunications (which facilitates more efficient transfers of information), even new design concepts - all helped bring workaholism about by placing economic values in the forefront. The Protestant work ethic ran amok. Instead of working in order to live - people began living in order to work.

Workaholics are rewarded with faster promotion and higher income. Workaholism is often - mistakenly - identified with entrepreneurship, ambition, and efficiency. Yet, really it is merely an addiction.

The absurd is that workaholism is a direct result of the culture of leisure.

As workers are made redundant by technology-driven productivity gains - they are encouraged to engage in leisure activities. Leisure substitutes for work. The historical demarcation between work and leisure is lost. Both are commended for their contribution to the economy. Work, like leisure, is less and less structured and rigid. Both work and leisure are often pursued from home and are often experienced as pleasurable.

The territorial separation between "work-place" and "home turf" is essentially eliminated.

Some people enjoy their work so much that it fulfils the functions normally reserved to leisure time. They are the workaholics. Others continue to hate work - but feel disorientated in the new leisure-rich environment. They are not taught to deal with too much free and unstructured time, with a lack of clearly delineated framework, without clear instructions as to what to do, when, with whom, and to what end.

The state, parents, educators, employers - all failed to train the population to cope with free time and with choice. Both types - the workaholic and the "normal" person baffled by too much leisure - end up sacrificing their leisure time to their work-related activities.

Alas, it takes workaholics to create, maintain and expand capitalism. People don't work or conduct business only because they are after the money. They enjoy their work or their business. They find pleasure in it. And this is the true meaning of capitalism: the abolition of the artificial distinction between work and leisure and the pursuit of both with the same zeal and satisfaction. Above all, the (increasing) liberty to do so whenever, wherever, with whomever you choose.




Do you actively or economically collaborate with any social organization, NGO, etc.?

NGOs do more evil than good.

Consider the typical NGO employees:

Their arrival portends rising local prices and a culture shock. Many of them live in plush apartments, or five star hotels, drive SUV's, sport $3000 laptops and PDA's. They earn a two figure multiple of the local average wage. They are busybodies, preachers, critics, do-gooders, and professional altruists.

Always self-appointed, they answer to no constituency. Though unelected and ignorant of local realities, they confront the democratically chosen and those who voted them into office. A few of them are enmeshed in crime and corruption. They are the non-governmental organizations, or NGO's.

Some NGO's - like Oxfam, Human Rights Watch, Medecins Sans Frontieres, or Amnesty - genuinely contribute to enhancing welfare, to the mitigation of hunger, the furtherance of human and civil rights, or the curbing of disease. Others - usually in the guise of think tanks and lobby groups - are sometimes ideologically biased, or religiously-committed and, often, at the service of special interests.

NGO's - such as the International Crisis Group - have openly interfered on behalf of the opposition in the last parliamentary elections in Macedonia. Other NGO's have done so in Belarus and Ukraine, Zimbabwe and Israel, Nigeria and Thailand, Slovakia and Hungary - and even in Western, rich, countries including the USA, Canada, Germany, and Belgium.

The encroachment on state sovereignty of international law - enshrined in numerous treaties and conventions - allows NGO's to get involved in hitherto strictly domestic affairs like corruption, civil rights, the composition of the media, the penal and civil codes, environmental policies, or the allocation of economic resources and of natural endowments, such as land and water. No field of government activity is now exempt from the glare of NGO's. They serve as self-appointed witnesses, judges, jury and executioner rolled into one.

Regardless of their persuasion or modus operandi, all NGO's are top heavy with entrenched, well-remunerated, extravagantly-perked bureaucracies. Opacity is typical of NGO's. Amnesty's rules prevent its officials from publicly discussing the inner workings of the organization - proposals, debates, opinions - until they have become officially voted into its Mandate. Thus, dissenting views rarely get an open hearing.

Contrary to their teachings, the financing of NGO's is invariably obscure and their sponsors unknown. The bulk of the income of most non-governmental organizations, even the largest ones, comes from - usually foreign - powers. Many NGO's serve as official contractors for governments.

NGO's serve as long arms of their sponsoring states - gathering intelligence, burnishing their image, and promoting their interests. There is a revolving door between the staff of NGO's and government bureaucracies the world over. The British Foreign Office finances a host of NGO's - including the fiercely "independent" Global Witness - in troubled spots, such as Angola. Many host governments accuse NGO's of - unwittingly or knowingly - serving as hotbeds of espionage.

Very few NGO's derive some of their income from public contributions and donations. The more substantial NGO's spend one tenth of their budget on PR and solicitation of charity. In a desperate bid to attract international attention, so many of them lied about their projects in the Rwanda crisis in 1994, recounts "The Economist", that the Red Cross felt compelled to draw up a ten point mandatory NGO code of ethics. A code of conduct was adopted in 1995. But the phenomenon recurred in Kosovo.

All NGO's claim to be not for profit - yet, many of them possess sizable equity portfolios and abuse their position to increase the market share of firms they own. Conflicts of interest and unethical behavior abound.

Cafedirect is a British firm committed to "fair trade" coffee. Oxfam, an NGO, embarked, three years ago, on a campaign targeted at Cafedirect's competitors, accusing them of exploiting growers by paying them a tiny fraction of the retail price of the coffee they sell. Yet, Oxfam owns 25% of Cafedirect.

Large NGO's resemble multinational corporations in structure and operation. They are hierarchical, maintain large media, government lobbying, and PR departments, head-hunt, invest proceeds in professionally-managed portfolios, compete in government tenders, and own a variety of unrelated businesses. The Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development owns the license for second mobile phone operator in Afghanistan - among other businesses. In this respect, NGO's are more like cults than like civic organizations.

Many NGO's promote economic causes - anti-globalization, the banning of child labor, the relaxing of intellectual property rights, or fair payment for agricultural products. Many of these causes are both worthy and sound. Alas, most NGO's lack economic expertise and inflict damage on the alleged recipients of their beneficence. NGO's are at times manipulated by - or collude with - industrial groups and political parties.

It is telling that the denizens of many developing countries suspect the West and its NGO's of promoting an agenda of trade protectionism. Stringent - and expensive - labor and environmental provisions in international treaties may well be a ploy to fend off imports based on cheap labor and the competition they wreak on well-ensconced domestic industries and their political stooges.

Take child labor - as distinct from the universally condemnable phenomena of child prostitution, child soldiering, or child slavery.

Child labor, in many destitute locales, is all that separates the family from all-pervasive, life threatening, poverty. As national income grows, child labor declines. Following the outcry provoked, in 1995, by NGO's against soccer balls stitched by children in Pakistan, both Nike and Reebok relocated their workshops and sacked countless women and 7000 children. The average family income - anyhow meager - fell by 20 percent.

This affair elicited the following wry commentary from economists Drusilla Brown, Alan Deardorif, and Robert Stern:

"While Baden Sports can quite credibly claim that their soccer balls are not sewn by children, the relocation of their production facility undoubtedly did nothing for their former child workers and their families."

This is far from being a unique case. Threatened with legal reprisals and "reputation risks" (being named-and-shamed by overzealous NGO's) - multinationals engage in preemptive sacking. More than 50,000 children in Bangladesh were let go in 1993 by German garment factories in anticipation of the American never-legislated Child Labor Deterrence Act.

Former Secretary of Labor, Robert Reich, observed:

"Stopping child labor without doing anything else could leave children worse off. If they are working out of necessity, as most are, stopping them could force them into prostitution or other employment with greater personal dangers. The most important thing is that they be in school and receive the education to help them leave poverty."

NGO-fostered hype notwithstanding, 70% of all children work within their family unit, in agriculture. Less than 1 percent are employed in mining and another 2 percent in construction. Again contrary to NGO-proffered panaceas, education is not a solution. Millions graduate every year in developing countries - 100,000 in Morocco alone. But unemployment reaches more than one third of the workforce in places such as Macedonia.

Children at work may be harshly treated by their supervisors but at least they are kept off the far more menacing streets. Some kids even end up with a skill and are rendered employable.

"The Economist" sums up the shortsightedness, inaptitude, ignorance, and self-centeredness of NGO's neatly:

"Suppose that in the remorseless search for profit, multinationals pay sweatshop wages to their workers in developing countries. Regulation forcing them to pay higher wages is demanded... The NGOs, the reformed multinationals and enlightened rich-country governments propose tough rules on third-world factory wages, backed up by trade barriers to keep out imports from countries that do not comply. Shoppers in the West pay more - but willingly, because they know it is in a good cause. The NGOs declare another victory. The companies, having shafted their third-world competition and protected their domestic markets, count their bigger profits (higher wage costs notwithstanding). And the third-world workers displaced from locally owned factories explain to their children why the West's new deal for the victims of capitalism requires them to starve."

NGO's in places like Sudan, Somalia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Albania, and Zimbabwe have become the preferred venue for Western aid - both humanitarian and financial - development financing, and emergency relief. According to the Red Cross, more money goes through NGO's than through the World Bank. Their iron grip on food, medicine, and funds rendered them an alternative government - sometimes as venal and graft-stricken as the one they replace.

Local businessmen, politicians, academics, and even journalists form NGO's to plug into the avalanche of Western largesse. In the process, they award themselves and their relatives with salaries, perks, and preferred access to Western goods and credits. NGO's have evolved into vast networks of patronage in Africa, Latin America, and Asia.

NGO's chase disasters with a relish. More than 200 of them opened shop in the aftermath of the Kosovo refugee crisis in 1999-2000. Another 50 supplanted them during the civil unrest in Macedonia a year later. Floods, elections, earthquakes, wars - constitute the cornucopia that feed the NGO's.

NGO's are proponents of Western values - women's lib, human rights, civil rights, the protection of minorities, freedom, equality. Not everyone finds this liberal menu palatable. The arrival of NGO's often provokes social polarization and cultural clashes. Traditionalists in Bangladesh, nationalists in Macedonia, religious zealots in Israel, security forces everywhere, and almost all politicians find NGO's irritating and bothersome.

The British government ploughs well over $30 million a year into "Proshika", a Bangladeshi NGO. It started as a women's education outfit and ended up as a restive and aggressive women empowerment political lobby group with budgets to rival many ministries in this impoverished, Moslem and patriarchal country.

Other NGO's - fuelled by $300 million of annual foreign infusion - evolved from humble origins to become mighty coalitions of full-time activists. NGO's like the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and the Association for Social Advancement mushroomed even as their agendas have been fully implemented and their goals exceeded. It now owns and operates 30,000 schools.

This mission creep is not unique to developing countries. As Parkinson discerned, organizations tend to self-perpetuate regardless of their proclaimed charter. Remember NATO? Human rights organizations, like Amnesty, are now attempting to incorporate in their ever-expanding remit "economic and social rights" - such as the rights to food, housing, fair wages, potable water, sanitation, and health provision. How insolvent countries are supposed to provide such munificence is conveniently overlooked.

"The Economist" reviewed a few of the more egregious cases of NGO imperialism.

Human Rights Watch lately offered this tortured argument in favor of expanding the role of human rights NGO's: "The best way to prevent famine today is to secure the right to free expression - so that misguided government policies can be brought to public attention and corrected before food shortages become acute." It blatantly ignored the fact that respect for human and political rights does not fend off natural disasters and disease. The two countries with the highest incidence of AIDS are Africa's only two true democracies - Botswana and South Africa.

The Centre for Economic and Social Rights, an American outfit, "challenges economic injustice as a violation of international human rights law". Oxfam pledges to support the "rights to a sustainable livelihood, and the rights and capacities to participate in societies and make positive changes to people's lives". In a poor attempt at emulation, the WHO published an inanely titled document - "A Human Rights Approach to Tuberculosis".

NGO's are becoming not only all-pervasive but more aggressive. In their capacity as "shareholder activists", they disrupt shareholders meetings and act to actively tarnish corporate and individual reputations. Friends of the Earth worked hard four years ago to instigate a consumer boycott against Exxon Mobil - for not investing in renewable energy resources and for ignoring global warming. No one - including other shareholders - understood their demands. But it went down well with the media, with a few celebrities, and with contributors.

As "think tanks", NGO's issue partisan and biased reports. The International Crisis Group published a rabid attack on the then incumbent government of Macedonia, days before an election, relegating the rampant corruption of its predecessors - whom it seemed to be tacitly supporting - to a few footnotes. On at least two occasions - in its reports regarding Bosnia and Zimbabwe - ICG has recommended confrontation, the imposition of sanctions, and, if all else fails, the use of force. Though the most vocal and visible, it is far from being the only NGO that advocates "just" wars.

The ICG is a repository of former heads of state and has-been politicians and is renowned (and notorious) for its prescriptive - some say meddlesome - philosophy and tactics. "The Economist" remarked sardonically: "To say (that ICG) is 'solving world crises' is to risk underestimating its ambitions, if overestimating its achievements."

NGO's have orchestrated the violent showdown during the trade talks in Seattle in 1999 and its repeat performances throughout the world. The World Bank was so intimidated by the riotous invasion of its premises in the NGO-choreographed "Fifty Years is Enough" campaign of 1994, that it now employs dozens of NGO activists and let NGO's determine many of its policies.

NGO activists have joined the armed - though mostly peaceful - rebels of the Chiapas region in Mexico. Norwegian NGO's sent members to forcibly board whaling ships. In the USA, anti-abortion activists have murdered doctors. In Britain, animal rights zealots have both assassinated experimental scientists and wrecked property.

Birth control NGO's carry out mass sterilizations in poor countries, financed by rich country governments in a bid to stem immigration. NGO's buy slaves in Sudan thus encouraging the practice of slave hunting throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Other NGO's actively collaborate with "rebel" armies - a euphemism for terrorists.

NGO's lack a synoptic view and their work often undermines efforts by international organizations such as the UNHCR and by governments. Poorly-paid local officials have to contend with crumbling budgets as the funds are diverted to rich expatriates doing the same job for a multiple of the cost and with inexhaustible hubris.

This is not conducive to happy co-existence between foreign do-gooders and indigenous governments. Sometimes NGO's seem to be an ingenious ploy to solve Western unemployment at the expense of down-trodden natives. This is a misperception driven by envy and avarice.

But it is still powerful enough to foster resentment and worse. NGO's are on the verge of provoking a ruinous backlash against them in their countries of destination. That would be a pity. Some of them are doing indispensable work. If only they were a wee more sensitive and somewhat less ostentatious. But then they wouldn't be NGO's, would they?

Interview granted to Revista Terra, Brazil, September 2005

Q. NGOs are growing quickly in Brazil due to the discredit politicians and governmental institutions face after decades of corruption, elitism etc. The young people feel they can do something concrete working as activists in a NGOs. Isn't that a good thing? What kind of dangers someone should be aware before enlisting himself as a supporter of a NGO?

A. One must clearly distinguish between NGOs in the sated, wealthy, industrialized West - and (the far more numerous) NGOs in the developing and less developed countries.

Western NGOs are the heirs to the Victorian tradition of "White Man's Burden". They are missionary and charity-orientated. They are designed to spread both aid (food, medicines, contraceptives, etc.) and Western values. They closely collaborate with Western governments and institutions against local governments and institutions. They are powerful, rich, and care less about the welfare of the indigenous population than about "universal" principles of ethical conduct.

Their counterparts in less developed and in developing countries serve as substitutes to failed or dysfunctional state institutions and services. They are rarely concerned with the furthering of any agenda and more preoccupied with the well-being of their constituents, the people.

Q. Why do you think many NGO activists are narcissists and not altruists? What are the symptoms you identify on them?

A. In both types of organizations - Western NGOs and NGOs elsewhere - there is a lot of waste and corruption, double-dealing, self-interested promotion, and, sometimes inevitably, collusion with unsavory elements of society. Both organizations attract narcissistic opportunists who regards NGOs as venues of upward social mobility and self-enrichment. Many NGOs serve as sinecures, "manpower sinks", or "employment agencies" - they provide work to people who, otherwise, are unemployable. Some NGOs are involved in political networks of patronage, nepotism, and cronyism.

Narcissists are attracted to money, power, and glamour. NGOs provide all three. The officers of many NGOs draw exorbitant salaries (compared to the average salary where the NGO operates) and enjoy a panoply of work-related perks. Some NGOs exert a lot of political influence and hold power over the lives of millions of aid recipients. NGOs and their workers are, therefore, often in the limelight and many NGO activists have become minor celebrities and frequent guests in talk shows and such. Even critics of NGOs are often interviewed by the media (laughing).

Finally, a slim minority of NGO officers and workers are simply corrupt. They collude with venal officials to enrich themselves. For instance: during the Kosovo crisis in 1999, NGO employees sold in the open market food, blankets, and medical supplies intended for the refugees.

Q. How can one choose between good and bad NGOs?

A. There are a few simple tests:

1. What part of the NGO's budget is spent on salaries and perks for the NGO's officers and employees? The less the better.

2. Which part of the budget is spent on furthering the aims of the NGO and on implementing its promulgated programs? The more the better.

3. What portion of the NGOs resources is allocated to public relations and advertising? The less the better.

4. What part of the budget is contributed by governments, directly or indirectly? The less the better.

5. What do the alleged beneficiaries of the NGO's activities think of the NGO? If the NGO is feared, resented, and hated by the local denizens, then something is wrong!

6. How many of the NGO's operatives are in the field, catering to the needs of the NGO's ostensible constituents? The more the better.

7. Does the NGO own or run commercial enterprises? If it does, it is a corrupt and compromised NGO involved in conflicts of interest.

Q. The way you describe, many NGO are already more powerful and politically influential than many governments. What kind of dangers this elicits? Do you think they are a pest that need control? What kind of control would that be?

A. The voluntary sector is now a cancerous phenomenon. NGOs interfere in domestic politics and take sides in election campaigns. They disrupt local economies to the detriment of the impoverished populace. They impose alien religious or Western values. They justify military interventions. They maintain commercial interests which compete with indigenous manufacturers. They provoke unrest in many a place. And this is a partial list.

The trouble is that, as opposed to most governments in the world, NGOs are authoritarian. They are not elected institutions. They cannot be voted down. The people have no power over them. Most NGOs are ominously and tellingly secretive about their activities and finances.

Light disinfects. The solution is to force NGOs to become both democratic and accountable. All countries and multinational organizations (such as the UN) should pass laws and sign international conventions to regulate the formation and operation of NGOs.

NGOs should be forced to democratize. Elections should be introduced on every level. All NGOs should hold "annual stakeholder meetings" and include in these gatherings representatives of the target populations of the NGOs. NGO finances should be made completely transparent and publicly accessible. New accounting standards should be developed and introduced to cope with the current pecuniary opacity and operational double-speak of NGOs.

Q. It seems that many values carried by NGO are typically modern and Western. What kind of problems this creates in more traditional and culturally different countries?

A. Big problems. The assumption that the West has the monopoly on ethical values is undisguised cultural chauvinism. This arrogance is the 21st century equivalent of the colonialism and racism of the 19th and 20th century. Local populations throughout the world resent this haughty presumption and imposition bitterly.

As you said, NGOs are proponents of modern Western values - democracy, women's lib, human rights, civil rights, the protection of minorities, freedom, equality. Not everyone finds this liberal menu palatable. The arrival of NGOs often provokes social polarization and cultural clashes.




Should any territory have the right of self-determination if a majority of the population votes in favour of doing so?

The new state of Kosovo has been immediately recognized by the USA, Germany, and other major European powers. The Canadian Supreme Court made clear in its ruling in the Quebec case in 1998 that the status of statehood is not conditioned upon such recognition, but that (p. 289):

"...(T)he viability of a would-be state in the international community depends, as a practical matter, upon recognition by other states."

The constitutional law of some federal states provides for a mechanism of orderly secession. The constitutions of both the late USSR and SFRY (Yugoslavia, 1974) incorporated such provisions. In other cases - the USA, Canada, and the United Kingdom come to mind - the supreme echelons of the judicial system had to step in and rule regarding the right to secession, its procedures, and mechanisms.

Again, facts on the ground determine international legitimacy. As early as 1877, in the wake of the bloodiest secessionist war of all time, the American Civil War (1861-5), the Supreme Court of the USA wrote (in William vs. Bruffy):

"The validity of (the secessionists') acts, both against the parent State and its citizens and subjects, depends entirely upon its ultimate success. If it fail (sic) to establish itself permanently, all such acts perish with it. If it succeed (sic), and become recognized, its acts from the commencement of its existence are upheld as those of an independent nation."

In "The Creation of States in International Law" (Clarendon Press, 2nd ed., 2006), James Crawford suggests that there is no internationally recognized right to secede and that secession is a "legally neutral act". Not so. As Aleksandar Pavkovic observes in his book (with contributions by Peter Radan), "Creating New States - Theory and Practice of Secession" (Ashgate, 2007), the universal legal right to self-determination encompasses the universal legal right to secede.

The Albanians in Kosovo are a "people" according to the Decisions of the Badinter Commission. But, though, they occupy a well-defined and demarcated territory, their land is within the borders of an existing State. In this strict sense, their unilateral secession does set a precedent: it goes against the territorial definition of a people as embedded in the United Nations Charter and subsequent Conventions.

Still, the general drift of international law (for instance, as interpreted by Canada's Supreme Court) is to allow that a State can be composed of several "peoples" and that its cultural-ethnic constituents have a right to self-determination. This seems to uphold the 19th century concept of a homogenous nation-state over the French model (of a civil State of all its citizens, regardless of ethnicity or religious creed).

Pavkovic contends that, according to principle 5 of the United Nations' General Assembly's Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation Among States in Accordance With the Charter of the United Nations, the right to territorial integrity overrides the right to self-determination.

Thus, if a State is made up of several "peoples", its right to maintain itself intact and to avoid being dismembered or impaired is paramount and prevails over the right of its constituent peoples to secede. But, the right to territorial integrity is limited to States:

"(C)onducting themselves in compliance with the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples ... and thus possessed of a government representing the whole people belonging to the territory without distinction as to race, creed, or colour."

The words "as to race, creed, or colour" in the text supra have been replaced with the words "of any kind" (in the 1995 Declaration on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations).

Yugoslavia under Milosevic failed this test in its treatment of the Albanian minority within its borders. They were relegated to second-class citizenship, derided, blatantly and discriminated against in every turn. Thus, according to principle 5, the Kosovars had a clear right to unilaterally secede.

As early as 1972, an International Commission of Jurists wrote in a report titled "The Events in East Pakistan, 1971":

"(T)his principle (of territorial integrity) is subject to the requirement that the government does comply with the principle of equal rights and does represent the whole people without distinction. If one of the constituent peoples of a state is denied equal rights and is discriminated against ... their full right of self-determination will revive." (p. 46)

A quarter of a century later, Canada's Supreme Court concurred (Quebec, 1998):

"(T)he international law right to self-determination only generates, at best, a right to external self-determination in situations ... where a definable group is denied meaningful access to government to pursue their political, economic, social, and cultural development."

In his seminal tome, "Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Appraisal" (Cambridge University Press, 19950, Antonio Cassese neatly sums up this exception to the right to territorial integrity enjoyed by States:

"(W)hen the central authorities of a sovereign State persistently refuse to grant participatory rights to a religious or racial group, grossly and systematically trample upon their fundamental rights, and deny the possibility of reaching a peaceful settlement within the framework of the State structure ... A racial or religious group may secede ... once it is clear that all attempts to achieve internal self-determination have failed or are destined to fail." (p. 119-120)




Deep down inside, who do you write for?

While I often say that if I find a publishing house that's interested in my stuff, I'm happy to change my protagonist from a 35 year old Martian-loving 28th century prostitute to a 17 year old cowboy in 19th century Kansas, if that's what the publisher wants, in reality I write for myself.

I have a day job, so I don't view my writing as a critical source of revenue, a la "publish at all costs, make whatever changes they require, because if it doesn't sell we don't eat." The stories come to me and the characters' voices haunt me until I write them down - writing is cheaper than an exorcist for me. So even if I never sold a story, I'd still write... which I suppose is the definition of writing for oneself.




What well known writers do you admire most?

Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Golgol, Turgenev, Checkov, Heine, Eichendorf, Goethe, Hugo, Dumas among my 19th century favorites. Mann, Grass, Pasternak, some of the more modern favorites. I also like Shelly, Twain, Wallace, Fitzgerald, and others. What I look for are ideas and inspiration that comes from these authors, not to follow in their paths or thinking, but the seek the things they sought in their writings.



What type of reading inspires you to write?

The type of reading that inspires me is varied. I like a good book that has a point, a raison d'etre that makes you think, sucks you into it and makes the conflicts and issues your own. Books from 19th century Russian, French, and German literature are among my favorites, being from a time of upheaval, industrialization, and political change. The books challenge perceptions, and require the reader to find their own conclusions. Non-fiction, written by keen observers and with biting cometary do this as well. Polemics and diatribes do not. Better to state the case and let the reasoned mind find its own path. A good read of this sort makes me want to do the same, not to tell the details of my experiences, but the lessons I have learned.



What type of reading inspires you to write?

I'm not usually inspired by any particular genre or author. What stimulates my imagination best is an especially poetic or profound rendition of some important idea: perhaps philosophical, perhaps scientific. Reading something like Nathaniel Hawthorne's essay, "The Old Manse," though it probably will have no bearing on what I choose to write, reminds me of the satisfaction found in a unique expression of an idea, whether it be mundane or profound or even funny. The transcendentalist writers of the 19th century have been the best source for me of that kind of stimulating writing.



What well known writers do you admire most?

British authors are clearly the best.

I think I have already spilled the beans on that, but I'll rate them top five:

I don't think anyone will ever say exactly the same on any authors but they are MY most admired.

#1 Edgar Allen Poe. 19th century(Father of the short story, over 100 books and 1120 poems, wicked, spellbinder, frequent first person, earned his claim to fame the hard way.)

#2 Charles Dickens ( "Tale of Two Cities" and "Great Expectations" He overcome the odds of 19th century England to rise to fame. He couldn't produce as much work as Poe but he had a family and Poe did not. He would be number 1 but Poe's prolific stories and poetry clearly makes him the greater artist, in my opinion.)

#3 Eleanor Alice Hurbert AKA Victoria Holt, and published under at least 3 pseudonyms, mostly first person, 183 books, 20th century British female author of historical novels, non-sexually explicit, no trash just pure imagination)

#4 Marcia Davenport 20th century ("The Valley of Decision", A masterpiece historical romance about the lifestyles of two different families in Pittsburgh from the late 19th century until Pearl Harbor that included the labor union battles,steel mills, and Ohio River flood, and the only third person novel that made a huge impact on me. The kind to re-read)

#5 Mary Shelley ( 19th century, first person British science fiction author of "Frankenstein") Naysayers, this is science fiction and my forte.




What era of architecture most fascinates you?

late 19th century



What era of architecture most fascinates you?

Our fascination is with the development of new technologies to serve archietctural needs. In history, this is expressed in the 19th century development of glass as a building element and the 20th century development of lightweight facades and building skins.



What did you first read? How did you begin to write? Who were the first to read what you wrote?

Always read a lot as a child, from quite early. A lot of science fiction in high school, a lot of 19th century novels in university. From high school on, wrote many stories, plays, poems, songs, essays, and stylistic experiments.



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