It depends. In a movie there are certain criteria that makes a movie successful; i.e., the underlying plots, the scene turns, etc. In a story that you want to change the way someone thinks, which isn't always entertaining, it takes emotional connection and reaction. We have to impact someone emotionally. So, a good story in this vein, means changing how a child thinks, especially about him or herself.
Who what where when and why. Or some combination thereof.
Character, plot driven by character, and the author's voice -- the sense of the writer that comes through the prose. What else? Sense of place. Setting should be another character.
I don't think you can break down writing like that. A good story is the definition of "more than the some of its parts". That's why I don't like things like outlines and character sketches. I don't think you can break writing down into a jigsaw puzzle and just put the pieces together. To me writing a good story is like a good piece of music. Each part naturally builds on the last part, there is a flow to a good story.
Other than beginning, middle, and end? Uh, believable characters, creative plot, comfortable voice.
To me a good story includes believable, unique characters whose actions continue to surprise to the very end. I like an internal journey as well as an exterior plotline. I also like to learn something new, whether it is of a different culture or perspective on life.
A time frame- a main character- a theme.
A mind, an experience, and the truth.
It should be interesting to other people and not only to you and you should try to deliver it in the way that people would still be interested in it afterwards.
In my opinion, the basic ingredients of a story are a gripping subject, well-developed characters, attention to chronology, a well-designed plot, proper attention to detail and an ending that fits.
A place and its atmosphere. Characters.
Writing good prose is at the top of my list. Of course a compelling story with conflict and resolution are important, but, as they say in the song, it don't mean a thing if it aint got that swing.
A compelling character who undergoes some sort of change or personal transformation.
The basics of every good story needs to have an intriguing beginning, a page-turning plot and a very satisfying ending. If not, it will not hold my attention for too long.